My unreserved gratitude goes to Almighty God, for his faithful love and constancy, even in my shortcomings. I am greatly indebted to my supervisor, Dr. F.O. Adu, who had taken time to read through the work.  Equally worth mentioning is Mr. Adu [Junior] who perused the work and put the seal of perfect completion on it. I also appreciate my wife, children and my pastor Prophet and  Mrs [Foluso] Faith for their support, encouragement and prayers.

I will not forget to thank my good friends Pastor Deji Aladeniyi; Pastor Afolabi Kolawole; Pastor Olarenwaju Lawrence; Pastor Gbenga Olorunda and Mrs. Shade Adekoya for their love and care God bless you all.  To those I forget, please charge it not to my heart but to my fallible nature.











Title page




Table of Content

List of Table



Background to the study

Statement of the problem

Research questions

Significance of the study

The scope and limitations of the study

Definition of Terms


Objective of the study

Meaning of reading culture

Poor and constraints on reading culture

Effects of the downward trend in reading culture on

academic performance of the senior secondary school students.

Need for effective reading culture

Solution to the download trend in reading culture among students

Strategies for Improving Reading Culture among

Senior Secondary School Students and Nigeria at large



Research Design                                                                              29

Sample and sampling Techniques                                                   29

Research Instrument                                                                        30

Validity and Reliability of the Research Instrument                          30

Procedure for data collection                                                            30

Data analysis technique                                                                   30


Results of the research questions                                                    32

Discussions                                                                                      38


Summary                                                                                          41

Conclusion                                                                                        44

Recommendations                                                                            46

References                                                                                       50

Appendix                                                                                           52









List of table

Table 1:      Do study habits of male and female differ and its effect on their academic performance?

Table 2:      Could poor reading culture be inimical to personal and national development

Table 3:      Could socio-Economic status of parents affect the students’ academic performance

Table 4:      Can the students reading apathy be rehabilitated

Table 5:      Analysis of WAEC and NECO result between 2008-2014















This paper investigated the reading culture and its effect on academic performance of Senior Secondary School students in Ondo State.  Students were randomly picked from six selected secondary schools.  Two schools each from three senatorial districts of Ondo State.  The instrument utilized for the investigation were questionnaire and personal interviews with some randomly selected students.  The data collected in this study were analyzed using percentage for the scores and empiricism.  The findings simply revealed that there is downward trend in reading culture among the Senior Secondary students which led to downward trend in their performance as watching home video;  “MTN extra-cool”; environmental pollution, Lack of operational Library and reliance  on dishonest tricks during examinations.  This study revealed that this is a menace to our educational system and to combat  it needs the involvement of all the stakeholders in education sector to leave no stone unturned.  The study recommends that education should be taken as a serious business and worth of huge investment.  Proper monitoring, conducive environment, functioning library, students and proper monitoring to encourage good reading habit in our schools and good performance in the examinations.










Background of the Study

          Comprehension is at the centre of reading.  Colons & cheek (1999) describe reading as a process that requires the use of complex thought process to interpret printed symbols as meaningful units and comprehend them as a thought unit in order to understand a printed massage.  According to Rubin (2002) affirms that, though reading, humans have the tools to transmit knowledge to each succeeding generation; it allows one to listen to the wisdom and people of the ages.  This is emphasized by many different religious traditions.  The Apostle paid admonished Timothy “study to show you approved into God. (IITimothy 2:15).  Islam holds acquisitions of knowledge (literacy, reading) in high esteem.  The Qur’an reveals that the first communication (injunctions) between Allah and Prophet Mohammed was knowledge-based.  Iraq-meaning “read” or “recite” (Qur’an 96:1.5).  Reading is the corner stone of learning.

Reading culture is the process of building up positive reading attitude among students and children over a period of time.  When an individual habitually and regularly read books and other information materials that are not necessarily required for him to advance in his profession or carrier, he is said to have a reading culture (Gbadamosi, 2007).  Reading lecture in essence therefore is the kind of culture that imbibes reading and studding as the basis of growth and development.  It is the type that sees continuous   and dedicated reading of information resources by pupils, children, students and adults for knowledge acquisition, which will be equipped and applied practically for development.  Reading sharpens the mind, makes one reason rationally and objectively as well as projects one for greatness in life.  That is why scholastic in describes readers as leaders.

Be that as it may be, this paper will embrace the following, which includes reading culture among the senior secondary school students in Ondo State, its effect on Academic Performance of this set of students, constrains to the development and improvement of reading culture as well as strategies for the improvement and development of reading culture among the senior secondary school students in Ondo-State and Nigeria at large.

Statement of the Problem

The way of life of a nation is influenced by the percentage of its citizen who is literate.  Cuba, for example, is adjacent to the us and has the highest rate of literacy in the world.  This is among the reasons why Cuba has a vibrant economy despite decades of diplomatic conflicts with the strongest nation in the world (Henry, 2004).  Tracy (2008) asserts that being a former British Colony, Nigeria’s literacy culture ought to be as standardized of Nigeria.  Henry (2004) states that out of the 814 million illiterate people in the world, developing countries especially in Africa, represent a huge percentage.  However, Latin America, Asia and others are making frantic efforts to drastically reduce the illiteracy rate, but owning to many reasons the same cannot be said of Africa especially Nigeria.

On assumption of office on May 29, 2007, President Umaru Musa Ya’radua of Nigeria authored his development blueprint tagged seven points agenda, geared towards vision 2020.  The aim of the vision 2020 is to make Nigeria one of the twenty top/target developed economies in the world by the year 2020.  Nigeria’s population is predominately youth, with young people under 35 years accounting for about 50% of the country’s over one hundred and forty million people (Federal Ministry of Youth Development, 2014).  In the year 2020 these young people will be the key drivers of the economy and will be the leaders in business and public services.

The concern of this paper is the reading Apathy observed among the senior secondary school students with apparent failure in external examinations.  The result released by WAEC for 2013.2014 session indicated that hers than 34% NECO 52.2% of the total candidates who sat for the examination had five credits including English Language and mathematics (OSRC NEWS AT 8,22-08-2014).  The past records of external examination results Via-a-vis WAEC and NECO showed the downward trend in the academic performance of the senor secondary school students as a result of poor reading culture.  In 1984, Ondo-States was ranked first among nineteen states of the Federation in 2002, Ondo-State came first followed by Imo State in the WAEC result released.  In 2004/2005 WAEC results, Ondo State ranked sixteen.  As if the worse is yet to come.  In 2008/2009, the state ranked twenty-second by WAEC.  What a change of fortune (Governor Segun Mimiko’s speech on quality assurance agent induction training, 2012).

The retrogressive performance continues until 2013 when a girl from Saint Louis grammar school Ondo came first in WAEC having A1 in all her Nine Subject and eight-hundred and forty –six total scores.  Thanks for the frantic efforts made by the Government and other stakeholders in education industry in the State WAEC, Result analysis section,  2013)  In view of this, this paper will investigate the reading culture among the senior secondary school students in Ondo state: determine its effects on the academic performance of the students in both internal and external examinations: and come up with some strategies for improving reading culture among the senior secondary schools students in Ondo-State and the Country as a whole.

The research is going to be carried out on some randomly selected secondary schools in the state.  The external examination result (WAEC and NECO) of the selected school will be analyzed and compared between the period 7 years-2008 to 2013.  Due to time constraints, the results of two schools from each senatorial district will be used as a ease study.  This will be six schools from the three senatorial districts. Questionnaire will be distributed.

Research Questions

  1. Do study habits of male and female differ? and its effect on their academic performance.
  2. Could poor reading culture be inimical to personal and national development?.
  3. Could Socio economic background of parents affect the student’s performance?
  4. Can the students reading Apathy be rehabilitated?

Significance of the Study

The study will assist teachers in identifying the social economic and psychological problems facing students, which have negative effects on their performances and to nip them in the bad.  It will serve as an eye opener to the government on the role of library in schools; the negative impact of poverty on education in Nigeria.  Our nation decrepit educational infrastructure is crying for an urgent and holistic overhaul.  The learning environment needs to be safe, neat, creative and functional.

The Scope and Limitations of the Study

Thus research work is limited to senior secondary schools in Ondo State.  Due to financial constraints and time, the research is conducted on randomly selected senior secondary school in Ondo state.  Two schools from each senatorial district will be used as a case study.  The schools are selected from different local government areas and both in rural and urban cities.

Definition of Terms

1        READING CULTURE: The attitudes and beliefs about reading that      are     shared by a particular group of people or in a particular          organization.

2        ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: This is the realization of Learning measured after a learning process has taken place.  Performance relates to the level of achievement of a person (student) given tracts or characteristics.

3        EFFECT: The way in which an event, action, or person changes          someone  or  something.









This Project is is available for the below list of Nigerian State capitals.
Abia Umuahia, Adamawa Yola, Akwa Ibom Uyo, Anambra Awka, Bauchi Bauchi, Bayelsa Yenagoa, Benue Makurdi, Borno Maiduguri, Cross River Calabar, Delta Asaba, Ebonyi Abakaliki, Edo Benin. Ekiti Ado Ekiti, Enugu Enugu, Gombe Gombe, Imo Owerri, Jigawa Dutse, Kaduna Kaduna, Kano Kano, Katsina Katsina, Kebbi Birnin Kebbi, Kogi Lokoja, Kwara Ilorin, Lagos Ikeja, Nasarawa Lafia, Niger Minna, Ogun Abeokuta, Ondo Akure, Osun Oshogbo, Oyo Ibadan, Plateau Jos, Rivers Port Harcourt, Sokoto Sokoto, Taraba Jalingo, Yobe Damaturu, Zamfara Gusau, FCT Abuja.



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