ACCESSING FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL

ACCESSING FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

Agriculture is the science, art or occupation concerned with cultivating land, producing crops, feeding, breeding and raising livestock, farming. Agriculture is the simplification of nature’s food webs and the rechanneling of energy for human planting and animal consumption. To simplify, agriculture involves redirecting natures natural flow web is the sum provides light to plants.

The importance of agriculture as a vocational subject to students in secondary schools and the entire human race cannot be disregarded as it prepares them to become responsible and dependable people in the society. It is such an education that makes people to be self reliant and self employed.

Teaching and learning of agricultural science had been given a thorough research by many researchers. Teaching can be defined as the impactation of knowledge. According to Akinpelu (2014), teaching is a body of actions intended to induce learning. He further defined teaching as the conscious and deliberate effort by a matured or experience person with intention that the student will learn or believe what is taught on a rational basis. According to Oyinloye, (2011) teaching is defined as activities undertaken by a more experienced and knowledgeable person in order to make others learn. He further pointed out that teaching involve influencing someone to change ones attitude on the basis of new skills, knowledge and appreciation. However, learning on the part of learner is very important because it can either be positive or negative depending on what was disseminated.

It therefore, become pertinent at this juncture to state that lack of property agricultural, education in our schools and lack of properly qualified agricultural teachers has resulted to reduced interest and poor performance of students in agriculture.

Akpon, A. O. and Salomie, K. A. (2015), rightly observed that poor remuneration situation of agricultural teachers with irregular payment of salaries as well as fringe benefits and lack of teachers motivation, attributed to their low moral. This point was further highlighted by Ayandele (2001), Babalola and Ezenwa (2001) who asserted that on of the mentioned reasons for teachers ineffectiveness in schools arise out of the frustration due to non-participation in the organization’s decision-making process similarly, students poor performance and lack of interests are attributed to so many factors.

According to Ayandele (2005), non-availability of school equipment, inadequate instructional supervision, socio-economic background of students, etc. hinder the effective performance of students in teaching and learning.

Furthermore Madike (2003), pointed out that most of the schools in Nigeria do not teach agriculture and even in schools where it is taught, there is no serious attempt to provide adequately qualified teachers and necessary facilities. Most of our students, he noted lack of both the interest and aptitude for agriculture. The syllabus are not oriented towards the need of the society and the society and the standard of teaching of many agriculture science teachers is nothing to write home about.

According to Mbanuju (2008), teachers of agricultural science make the subject boring. They use the farm as punishment ground for offending students, and this make students feel that the school farm is mainly for punishment. This goes a long way to kill interest of the students especially for practical work. As a result of this, students feel very proud to be associated with such subject like Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Mathematics and Additional Mathematics even when they do not have aptitude for such subjects. This makes them disregard subject like Agriculture science which they feel is for then never-do-wells. This impression of the youths about agriculture makes it difficult for the teachers to make any meaningful impact on the students both in the classroom and school farm during practical lessons.

Okoro (1999), pointed out that it is important to mention that there has been no evidence to show that secondary schools have gone into fulltime, on graduation because of the problems of finance, land tenure system, immature agriculture procedures, among others. According to him, the only exception is usually getting employed with ministry of agriculture. This observation, he tended to make some parent to choose for their children to take up agriculture. From the foregoing, one can infer that an exposure to agricultural science at the secondary school level is factor for higher studies in agricultural science.

In his own contribution Eze (2010), observed that teaching agricultural science in schools has been greatly lacking in their goals aspiration. Many agricultural educational institutions he pointed out should be established to educate and train people in the science of agriculture. He concluded that from this, young people will receive formal education and training which provides them with a career since agriculture is one of the main features of economic development of a country and a contributor to National income and employment, it should be accorded priority consideration towards the maintenance of a healthy economy.

 

The secondary school system of education assumes the role of training and producing students for tertiary institutions and manpower for national development and world of work. It is in the importance of manpower development in the quality of academic achievement that  successive administrations at the national state and local government levels in Nigeria have been allocating a significant part of their annual budget to education sector.

Parents too are not left out as they struggle to see their children perform well in the school by giving them all the necessary financial and moral support “Atanda, A. I and Lammed, W. O. (2006).

The teaching of Agricultural Science in Nigerian secondary schools needs to be properly handled. Agriculture contributes to the nation’s economic development, hence, the need to be taught thoroughly if it is to meet the educational and economic development. Moreso, Agricultural science is one of the subjects in junior and senior secondary schools; and as a vocational subject, it cannot be taught effectively without the use of appropriate instructional materials Ajayi, Y. A. (2008).

The curriculum of the senior secondary school levels consist of three major concepts of production, protection and economic learning was emphasized in the curriculum so that the students should be able to produce food and other agricultural products for themselves and their community. A series of activities were suggested in the curriculum to ensure the development of psychomotor skill in Agricultural Science  by the students. The teaching of Agricultural science education was initiated in 1989. The goal of helping students to acquire scientific knowledge and the required skill may not have been achieved due to poor study and irregular habits and effective practical lesson among secondary school students in Agricultural science  Emeya, S. and Ojimba, T. P. (2012).  In Nigeria there are many factors influencing the ability of students to cultivate assessment and efficient of school factors,  Emeya, S. and Ojimba, T. P. (2012).

Smith, M. (2012). emphasized the important of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of student’s. According to  Okolie, U. C, Elom, E. N. and Inyiagu, E. E (2014), secondary school students in public school often come from economically poor and average income families.

The families face various problems causing emotional disturbance among their children which may result in poor academic performance. This singular factor has caused serious setback to academic achievement status to secondary school students. The teachers as the facilitators of knowledge should provide the necessary and appropriate school factors that will enable the students to learn in order to enhance their academic achievement in Agricultural Science Denga, N. T. (2002)

School factors or facilities have been observed as a potent factor to quantitative education. The importance to teaching and learning of the provision of adequate instructional facilities for education cannot be over-emphazied. The dictum that “teaching is inseparable from learning but learning is not separable from teaching” is that teachers do the teaching to make the students learn, but students can learn without the teachers. According to Denga, N. T. (2002), learning can occur through one’s interaction with one’s environment and Denga, N. T. (2002), identified seven environmental factors that may affect the teachinglearning process and one of these environmental factor.

Environment here refers to facilities that are available to facilitate students learning outcome. It includes books, audiovisual, software and hardware of educational technology; so also, size of classroom, sitting position and arrangement, availability of tables, chairs, chalkboards, shelves on which instruments for practical are arranged Eimuhi, J. O. and Ogedegbe, B. G. (2016).

Statement Of The Problem

Agricultural Science   is one of the core science subjects, which is supposed to be the most interesting subject to students in senior secondary schools. It has been discovered that the effective teaching of Agricultural Science   has been very important. But the rate at which students fails Agricultural Science  in recent time’s shows that effective learning has not been attained by these students.  It could be revealed that many secondary schools, especially the public schools have insufficient competent teachers as well as science equipment in their different schools.

In view of all the problems mentioned already, this study is being undertaken with a view of finding out the extent to which teachers qualification, years of teaching experience and the availability of instructional materials in Agricultural Science  classrooms affecting their teaching.

The problem this study sought to find is the extent to which some of the known characteristics of teaching effectiveness are employed in Agricultural Science  classroom to promote learning. It  is  upon  this  background  that  this  study was aimed  at  finding  out  the factors affecting students performance in   Agricultural Science   in  some selected secondary  schools using Billiri Local   Government Area of  Gombe State

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to find out the  problems affecting teaching and learning of  Agricultural Science   in secondary schools using Ado Local Government Area of Gombe State as a case study

The specific objective are;

  1. To find out the factors militating against effecting  teaching of  Agricultural Science  in Secondary Schools
  2. To investigate the extent to which teachers attitude affect  students academic performance in Agricultural Science  in Ado Local Government Area.
  3. To determine if teachers qualification affect the students performance of Agricultural Science
  4. To find out if the use of instructional material affect effective teaching and learning of Agricultural Science

 Research Questions

In the course of this work, specific research questions to be answered are:

  1. What are the problems militating against teaching and learning of Agricultural Science ?
  2. To what extent do the attitude of teachers affect students perforance the teaching and learning of Agricultural Science Ado Local Government Area?
  3. To what extent does teacher qualification affect the teaching and learning of Agricultural Science ?
  4. Does the use of instructional materials affect the teaching and learning of Agricultural Science

Research Hypothesis

The following null hypothesis would be tested at 0.05 level of significance

  1. Problems encounter in teaching Agricultural Science does not  have significant different in teaching Agricultural Science
  2. Teachers attitude does not have significant different in teaching and learning Agricultural Science
  3. Teachers qualification does not have significant effect on the teaching and learning of Agricultural Science

1.5       Significant of the Study

This research will be beneficial to teachers. The result of this research will enable teachers to use different teaching methods in teaching Agricultural Science . The result of this study will enable educational supervisors (government officials)  to check the activities of schools and show that qualified teachers are used.

The study would provide adequate information in the availability of the scientific specific Agricultural Science   equipment in senior secondary schools in Ado Local Government Area.

1.6     Scope Of Study                             

The study is aimed at   investigate the factor affecting students academic performance in Agricultural science. Five selected secondary schools were randomly selected in the study area

This Project is is available for the below list of Nigerian State capitals.
Abia Umuahia, Adamawa Yola, Akwa Ibom Uyo, Anambra Awka, Bauchi Bauchi, Bayelsa Yenagoa, Benue Makurdi, Borno Maiduguri, Cross River Calabar, Delta Asaba, Ebonyi Abakaliki, Edo Benin. Ekiti Ado Ekiti, Enugu Enugu, Gombe Gombe, Imo Owerri, Jigawa Dutse, Kaduna Kaduna, Kano Kano, Katsina Katsina, Kebbi Birnin Kebbi, Kogi Lokoja, Kwara Ilorin, Lagos Ikeja, Nasarawa Lafia, Niger Minna, Ogun Abeokuta, Ondo Akure, Osun Oshogbo, Oyo Ibadan, Plateau Jos, Rivers Port Harcourt, Sokoto Sokoto, Taraba Jalingo, Yobe Damaturu, Zamfara Gusau, FCT Abuja.

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