ADMINISTRATIVE CONSTRAINTS ON TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS IN GOVERNMENT SECONDARY SCHOOLS

ADMINISTRATIVE CONSTRAINTS ON  TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS IN GOVERNMENT SECONDARY SCHOOLS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – – –
Approval Page – – — – – – – –
Certification – – – – – – – –
Dedication – – – – – – — – –
Acknowledgements – — – – — –
Table of Contents – – – – – – – –
List of Tables – – — – – –
Abstract – – – – – – – – –
CHAPTER ONE: – INTRODUCTION
Background to the study – – – – – – –
Statement of the problem – – – — – –
Purpose of the study – – – – — – –
Significance of the study – – – — – –
Scope of the study – – – – — – – –
Research questions – – – — – – –
Research hypotheses – – – — – – –
CHAPTER TWO: – REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Conceptual framework – – – – – –
Concept of administration – – – – – –
Concept of teacher effectiveness – — – – –
Organization for curriculum implementation – – –
Aspects of supervision of instruction – – – – –
School plant management – – – – – –
School community relations – – – – – –
Motivational factors – – – — – – –

Theoretical framework – – – — – – –
Human relations theory – – – – – – –
Theories of job satisfaction – – – – – –
Review of empirical studies – – – – – –
Summary of literature review – – – – –
CHAPTER THREE: – RESEARCH METHODS
Design of the study – – – – – – –
Area of the study – – – – – – –
Population of the study – – – – – – –
Sample and sampling techniques – – – – –
Instrument for data collection – – – – – –
Validation of the instrument – – – – – –
Reliability of the Instrument – – – – – –
Method of data collection – – – – – –
Method of data analysis – – – – – –
CHAPTER FOUR: – RESULTS
Research Question 1 – – – – – –
Research Question 2 – – – – – –
Research Question 3 – – – – – –
Research Question 4 – – – – – –
Research Question 5 — — – – – –
Hypothesis One – – — – – – –
Hypothesis Two – – — – – –
Hypothesis Three – – — – – – –
Hypothesis Four – – – – – –
Hypothesis Five – – — – – – –
Summary of Findings – – — – –
CHAPTER FIVE: –  DISCUSSIONS, IMPLICATIONS ANDRECOMMENDATIONS
Discussion of Results – – – – – –
Conclusions – – – – – – –
Implications of Research Findings – – – –
Recommendations – – – – – – –
Limitations of the Study – – – – – –
Suggestions for Further Research – – – –
Summary of the Study – – – – –
References – – – – – – – –
Appendices – – – – – – –
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Distribution of Principals /Teachers in government secondary
schools in Benue state – – – – –
Table 2: Distribution of Principals and teachers selected — 146
Table 3: Results of SSCE ‘O’ level and Neco ‘O’ level examinations
in government secondary schools in
Benue State. 2005-2009 – – – – –
Table 4: Mean Ratings and standard Deviations of Responses of
principals and Teachers on Organisation for curriculum
implementation – – – – – –
Table 5: Mean Ratings and standard Deviations of Responses of
Principals and Teachers on Instructional Supervision. 95
Table 6: Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations of Responses of
Principals and teachers on school plant management –
Table 7: Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations of Reponses of
principals and Teachers on school Community Relations.
Table 8: Mean Ratings and standard Deviations of Responses of
Principals and Teachers on Motivational Factors.
Table 9: Summary of z – test for Hypothesis one. –
Table 10: Summary of z -test for Hypothesis two. – –
Table 10: Summary of z -test for Hypothesis three. – —
Table 10: Summary of z -test for Hypothesis four. – —
Abstract.
The study was designed to investigate administrative constraints to teacher
effectiveness in government secondary schools in Benue state and
consequently suggest ways of curbing them. The study investigated the
following issues: organization for curriculum implementation, instructional
supervision, school plant management, school community relations and
motivational factors. Five research questions and five null hypotheses guided
the study. A questionnaire designed by the researcher, validated by experts
and tested was used as the research instrument. This was administered to 33
principals and 655 teachers of government secondary schools in Benne State.
The mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research
questions, while the z-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of
significance. The findings amongst others, indicate that the following
constitute constraints to teacher effectiveness: organization for curriculum
implementation, school plant management, school community relations and
in-adequate motivation. Supervision of instruction however did not constitute
a constraint. The major implications of the findings are that teachers can
hardly be effective in the face of innumerable administrative constraints.
Based on the findings recommendations were made.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
. Conscious of the fact that success in the realization of educational goals
depends largely on the teacher, the National Policy on Education, FRN (2004),
recognizes that the quality of education is guaranteed by teacher effectiveness.
The teacher’s task is to teach, educate, provide educational guidance, promote
the quest for scientific knowledge and conduct regular assessment (FRN,
2004).In view of the important and diverse nature of the teacher’s job, the
necessary resources and conducive working environment must be provided to
facilitate the effective execution of his/her task. The provision of favourable
physical and psychological working environment is the task of school
administrators.
The quality of such administrative service transcends location so that
principals and teachers in all schools are supposed to be offered a fair and equal
opportunity to be effective. This is particularly important because the practice in
the state has been that education zonal offices are located in the local
government council headquarters and they appear to concentrate on schools
nearby. As a result, teachers in the distant areas stand the risk of being deprived
of needed motivation because the officers in the zonal offices do not extend
their services to such areas.

The most important factor in teaching is the teacher, not technique
method or curriculum because he translates all these into meaningful learning
experiences for students, (Abiogu and Ugwuja 2007). Next to the quality of the
teacher is the quality of administrative services provided in schools to enhance
effective teaching. By implication, teacher effectiveness goes along with the
quality of administrative services provided, A teacher here refers to one who
guides and tutors another towards the acquisition of desired knowledge and
skills,
The concept of teacher effectiveness is elusive given that teaching is a
complex activity (Zeichner, 2006) However for the purpose of this study,
teacher effectiveness refers to the process of the teacher’s interaction with the
students in educating them and students performance in tests and examinations
(Hughes, 2001). In Benue State constraints to teacher effectiveness are multiple
Ada, (2000) identifies some to include: a)lack of professional training
b)physical characteristics of the teacher, c) personality traits, and d)
administrative constraints.
In the first instance, teaching is one of the most difficult jobs because
human behaviour is complex and difficult to modify or change especially if one
is not equipped to do so, (Abottchampman , Hughes & Wyld, 1992). This lack
of professional training becomes a major constraint to teacher effectiveness
.Physical characteristics such as voice quality and non-verbal communication
skills and such effective qualities as fairness, patience, humour and concern for
students can enhance teacher effectiveness (Dimmock, 2005). Therefore a
teacher who lacks these qualities will likely fail to foster the social, emotional
and psychological development of the child. Other personal attributes that can
affect teacher effectiveness include: good health, punctuality, regularity and
fairness (Okoh, 1990). In addition, personality traits such as self-concept,
aggressiveness, locus of control and attitude to work in general, are believed to
affect effectiveness. These personal attributes are particularly desirable if the
teacher is to view teaching as a cause beyond oneself (Dimmock, 2005). This
implies that love for the job itself will lead to greater commitment and self
sacrifices, without which teaching becomes a stop over to other jobs or just
another boring means of earning a living. In such a situation teacher
effectiveness is sacrificed.
Some of the contributing factors to teacher effectiveness, of course, lie on
the school administration. The decision to dwell on administrative constraints
stems from various factors. In Benue State, 90% of teachers in government
secondary schools are trained,(Benue State Education Summit Digest,2005).
The premise is that they possess adequate professional competencies. Secondly,
this researcher shares the views of Bello, (2000) that it is possible for teachers
lacking desirable physical and effective traits to be given adequate training and
provided conducive working environment. Thirdly, because of fewer job
opportunities in Benue State, due to lack of industrialization, some people going into teaching are just looking for job and need to be highly motivated by school
administrators to be effective.
Finally, many of the decisions involving the organization and running of
schools in the state are made by school administrators. Such decisions as
organization for curriculum implementation, supervision of instruction,
provision of adequate facilities and equipment, provision of favourable school
community relations and staff motivation, rest with the school
administration,(Focho, 2006) Evidently, a proper articulation by school
administrators of these issues will enhance effective teaching or quality delivery
which will be reflected in high students performance in examinations. On the
contrary, if these issues are not handled satisfactorily by school administrators,
dissatisfaction sets in reducing motivation and effectiveness while promoting
teacher stress, (Oboegbulem, 2004).
A constraint here may be taken to mean a hindrance, therefore,
administrative constraints may include those hindrances emanating from the
way schools are managed. The term school administrator is not limited to any
one person or position, rather it refers to any one involved in the management
process of the school. These include’ principals, vice-principals, subject
masters, state ministry of education, teaching service board, and local
government education officers, director of secondary schools, curriculum
planners, the state government, the minister of education and the federal
government. Considering that teacher effectiveness is a function of teacher
characteristics (professional, and personal) and the quality of administrative
service, it is evident that administrative constraints can make a teacher
ineffective despite the possession of desired characteristics.
Another indication of constraints to teacher ineffectiveness which may be
due to administrative factors is noticeable in the fact that many students in the
researcher’s school attend private evening classes to ensure content coverage
and better understanding. Their complaint is that their regular teachers neither
teach well nor do they cover the scheme of work . This also seems to be the
trend in other parts of the state. Another evidence of constraints to teacher
effectiveness is noticeable in the frequent radio announcements made by
principals on the state radio demanding some teachers to report for work or face
disciplinary actions,(Torkula, 2004). There are also obvious cases that some
government secondary school teachers are involved in other income generating
activities.
Constraints to teacher effectiveness are again reflected in student’s poor
performances in external examinations. The contention that Benue students in
Government Secondary Schools perform poorly in external examinations is
corroborated by results of the Senior Secondary School Certificate
Examinations as conducted by National Examinations Council of Nigeria
(NECO) and West African Examination Council (WAEC).(see appendix III).
There have been complaints of a steady decline in performances. Therefore
indications of teacher ineffectiveness in some government secondary schools in
Benue State do abound.
In an effort to look at causes of teacher ineffectiveness fingers seem to be
directed to school administrators. From the researcher’s experience there is little
instructional supervision leading to lack of quality control and technical support
to teachers. Teachers in the researcher’s school tend to do as they please
because no one really checks if they follow or complete the syllabus.
Furthermore, teachers are often in conflict with the principal and this often
degenerates to exchange of angry words during staff meetings. To compound
the problem, these same teachers often express dissatisfaction with the
textbooks, the timetable, the length of syllabus, workload, class size and
inadequate allowances.
Based on the above, two fundamental questions arose; what exactly is the
nature of the teacher’s working conditions, and are the school administrators
providing the necessary conducive working environment?. Secondly, how
prevalent is this malaise in the state or is it peculiar to the researcher’s school?
Conversations with teachers from the area under study reveal that teachers in
other schools experience similar problems. It is the feeling of this researcher
that educational authorities in Benue State are not fully aware of the nature and
extent of the problems encountered by teachers. Probably, the issues raised by
teachers at joint meetings are not properly oriented For example, teachers
complain of poor working conditions and inadequate motivation but the nature
and extent of these problems have not been fully delineated. Thus, it becomes
imperative to investigate the nature and extent of their ineffectiveness that
relates to the administrative machinery.
Statement of the Problem
Benue state is often listed among the educationally backward states in
Nigeria. The administrative structure of schools in all ramifications should be
enabling rather than constituting a constraint to teacher effectiveness as
presently seems to be the case here. However, it is appalling to note that
statistics from the State Ministry of Education and its affiliate agencies reveal
that SSCE students are performing below expectation. The researchers
interaction with principals, parents and teachers revealed that the conditions
under which many students learn in many government secondary schools in
Benue State is un-conducive and deplorable and capable of rendering the
teacher ineffective and posing a hindrance to positive educational outcomes.
The Benue situation seems to be such that factors relating to poor teacher
disposition towards quality delivery and consequent administrative constraints
to efficient productivity are both at play here. The later however as a
consequence of the former and needing investigation especially in government
secondary schools where the situation seems most deplorably glaring. The
problem of this study therefore put in question form is: what are the
administrative constraints to teacher effectiveness in government secondary
schools in Benue State?

Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to investigate the administrative
constraints to teacher effectiveness in government secondary schools in Benue
State. Specifically the study intends to;
1. Find out how the organization for curriculum implementation constitutes
constraints to teacher effectiveness.
2. Find out how instructional supervision may constitute constraints to
teacher effectiveness.
3. Find out how the school plant management may constitute constraints to
teacher effectiveness.
4. Determine how school- community relations may constitute constraints to
teacher effectiveness.
5. Determine the extent to which in-adequate motivational factors act as
constraints to teacher effectiveness.
Significance of the Study
Teacher effectiveness had always been a function of both teacher
characteristics and management practices of school administrators. The present
study may be theoretically significant as a collaboration to the scientific
management or efficiency movements of the 19th centuries as well as the human
relations and job satisfaction theories of same period which posited that for the
worker to be efficient and effective he must be satisfied with his job and have
conducive working environment. This study involved to a great extent
principals and teachers and thus seek to expose more recent trends as to the
effects of job satisfaction and conducive working environment on the teacher
especially in Benue State. This may be of benefit to future researchers who will
pick up on other aspects of administration that hinder teacher effectiveness or
cause job dissatisfaction that are not covered by this study.
Generally, results of this study may be of interest to government,
educational policymakers, principals, teachers, parents and other researchers
who can gain access to the findings through publications and seminars that can
be generated from the findings.
Specifically the findings of this study may help the government to adopt better
strategies aimed at increasing the level of teacher job satisfaction and efficiency
in the state. It is hoped that by seeking to pin point specific areas of
administrative hindrances and making recommendations, resultant issues may
be systematically clarified. This may make it possible for the state government
to adopt positive approaches aimed at curbing administrative factors that
hitherto hindered teacher effectiveness and thus enhance the teaching learning
process in all government secondary schools in the state to the benefit of present
and future generations. The results of the study may also convince government
that teachers are generally dissatisfied because they are ill motivated. This may
spur the government to address such motivational issues as allowances and
promotion opportunities. The findings of this study may help educational policy
makers in the state to come up with better strategies to improve teacher
effectiveness. For instance, curriculum planers and the director of secondary
education responsible for the approval of programs may review the
unfavourable aspects pertaining to the organization for curriculum
implementation. Identifying instructional supervision problems may also help
principals and instructional supervisors to improve their supervisory practices.
Publication of the results of the study may alert the Director of secondary
education in the state ministry of education about the poor state of facilities and
equipment particularly in rural schools with a view to remedying the situation.
This may benefit the rural students as they may be better placed to compete with
their counterparts in the urban schools.
The research findings may make school principals and parents aware of
the special needs and gains of school community relations. This may be made
possible through workshops and seminars that may be generated . These may
eventually alert parents and local authorities about their level of cooperation and
hopefully efforts may be made to canvas for more of their support to the benefit
of the school and society at large. The school may thus be enabled to represent
the society better.
The findings of the study may also give the teacher union leaders first
hand and concrete information as to the nature of teachers problems through
publication of findings. This may equip them better in negotiating welfare
issues with the ministry of education. In the event where identified problems are
redressed, it is hoped that teacher unrest by way of strikes may be reduced and
students academic achievements may improve.
Scope of the Study
The study was carried out among principals and teachers of government
secondary schools in Benue State of Nigeria. The study covered all
government secondary schools in the twenty three local government councils.
This is because all government secondary schools in the state operate under one
Ministry of Education and the school structure, curriculum content and SSCE
Examination structure are quite homogenous. The study does not include
Technical, Vocational and Private secondary schools.
The content area focuses on organization of curriculum implementation,
method of instructional supervision and school plant management. Also to be
considered will be school -community relations as well as motivational factors.
Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study;
1 To what extent does organization for curriculum implementation
constitute constraints to teacher effectiveness?
2 To what extent does instructional supervision constitute constraints to
teacher effectiveness?
3 To what extent does the school plant management constitute constraints
to teacher effectiveness?
4 To what extent do school/community relations constitute constraints to
teacher effectiveness?
5 To what extent do in-adequate motivational factors act as constraints to
teacher effectiveness.
Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were tested at P < 0.05 level of
significance:
1 There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals,
and teachers in government secondary schools of Benue State as to how
organization of curriculum implementation constitutes a constraint to
teacher effectiveness.
2 There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals
and teachers in government secondary schools as to how instructional
supervision constitutes constraints to teacher effectiveness.
3 There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of principals and
teachers of government secondary schools of Benue State as regards
school plant management constituting a constraint to teacher
effectiveness.
4 There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals
and teachers of government secondary school of Benue State with regards
to school community relations acting as constituting a constraint to
teacher effectiveness.
5 There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals
and teachers in government secondary schools of Benue State with
regards to how in-adequate motivational factors act as constraints to
teacher effectiveness.

This Project is is available for the below list of Nigerian State capitals.
Abia Umuahia, Adamawa Yola, Akwa Ibom Uyo, Anambra Awka, Bauchi Bauchi, Bayelsa Yenagoa, Benue Makurdi, Borno Maiduguri, Cross River Calabar, Delta Asaba, Ebonyi Abakaliki, Edo Benin. Ekiti Ado Ekiti, Enugu Enugu, Gombe Gombe, Imo Owerri, Jigawa Dutse, Kaduna Kaduna, Kano Kano, Katsina Katsina, Kebbi Birnin Kebbi, Kogi Lokoja, Kwara Ilorin, Lagos Ikeja, Nasarawa Lafia, Niger Minna, Ogun Abeokuta, Ondo Akure, Osun Oshogbo, Oyo Ibadan, Plateau Jos, Rivers Port Harcourt, Sokoto Sokoto, Taraba Jalingo, Yobe Damaturu, Zamfara Gusau, FCT Abuja.

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