AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) ON THE TEACHING AND LEARNING IN POLITICAL SCIENCE IN COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
The purpose of the study is to examine the role of 1CT in teaching Political Science in Tertiary institution in Nigeria with a particular reference to the College of Education, Ikere – Ekiti as a case study. ICT today is essential in all fact of human endeavour, infact no person, group of individuals, organizations, be it government or non-governmental organization that does not use or interact with ICT on a daily basis,
The role of information and communication technology in teaching and learning n tertiary institutions is on the high increase, to the extent that developing countries cannot be left out in this trend. Therefore, the use of ICT is rapidly becoming one of the lost important and widely discussed issues in contemporary education policy around tie world. Most experts in the field of education agreed that when information and communication technology is used in the teaching and learning process, it will improve and boost the ego of the schools to a large extent. The study make use descriptive statistics as a method of gathering data, also the data collected are analyze through the use of simple percentage, from the analysis in the preceding chapter it is evident that the impact of ICT in teaching political science in tertiary institutions in Nigeria with a Darticular reference to College of Education, Ikere – Ekiti cannot be under look. Therefore, the alternative hypothesis, is hereby accepted and we reject the mill Hypothesis, the study recommend that students and teachers should appreciate the opportunities that are available in ICT to further facilitate the teaching and study of political science.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Limitations of the study
Scope of the study
Significance of study
Definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Roles of ICT in Education
Impact of ICT use on Classroom Teaching in tertiary Institution
Review of related empirical studies includes
- The Concept of Information and Communication Technology
- Benefit of ICT in tertiary institution in Nigeria
- Need for the Use of ICT in tertiary institution in Nigeria
- Maximizing Utility from ICT use in Classroom
- The Roles of Teacher Education in Facilitating Integration ICT in tertiary institution 32-33
- Challenges of Using ICT in college of education Ikere-Ekiti
- Summary of related literature review 36-37
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Population of the study
The sample and sampling techniques
Method of data collection
Validity of the instrument
Reliability of the instrument
Procedure for data analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, REPRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION
Discussion of result
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The training of teachers in different subject areas as a discipline involves various methods of approach and operations. The discipline of Political Science, centers on systematic study of the principles and skills pertinent to all aspects of Politics, development, and administration. As new concepts of learning have evolved, teachers and lecturers are expected to facilitate learning and make it meaningful to individual learners rather than just to provide knowledge and skills. Modern developments of innovative technologies has provided new possibilities for teaching profession, but at the same time have placed more demands on lecturers and teacher to learn how to use these new technologies in their teaching (Robinson and Latchem, 2003). These challenges task teacher to continuously retrain themselves and acquire new knowledge and skills while maintaining their job (Carlson and Gadio, 2002). Then what can be done to help teachers meet these challenges? Indeed, we are left with no option other than to train them. The integration of ICTs in teaching of political science as a course in tertiary institutions came as a burning need on how to improve on the physical, social, political, cultural, scientific and technological environment that we live in. Political science as a course is relatively new in Nigerian Schools. Though, Political Science has been in use since 1905 in America, but the subject was accorded official recognition in the report of the Committee on Political Science of the commission on the re-organization of Secondary Education on the National Education Association of the United States, Therefore in 1916, the earliest definition of Political Science emerged. It was defined as those whose subject matter relates directly to the organization and development of human society and to man as a member of social groups (Cross, 1958).
Teachers are often accused of conservation or always engaged in too much verbal means of communication and selling of study materials popularly called handouts. This means excessive use of words to convey meanings, unfortunately some of us do love to hear the sound of our voices, so much so that we forget to consider whether or not students are really understanding and enjoying whatever we are saying. The problem is that we tend to talk too much without really saying anything. We also tend to “talk at” our students instead of tending to “talk with” them. Thus, we keep on talking regardless of students’ non-verbal signals that they are bored or even completely lost. Methods of teaching are planned activities involved in the presentation of curriculum, like the lecture, project, discussion, tutorial or discovery methods, are example of bringing the learners into contact with the subject matter. The effectiveness of this contact demands activities and materials. These may be in the form of games; role-playing, demonstration and experiments, visit to real life situation, real objects and specimen, symbolical and pictorial representation.
Teachers should continually bear in mind that man learns through his senses. Some learn better by one or the other of the senses. To some seeing is to believe. To others, the senses of hearing, touch, smell and taste dominate in acquiring knowledge. For the intended learning to take place, the teacher must communicate effectively with the learners. In order to achieve this, the teacher must understand something of the communication process to the extent that it will enhance a wide choice of his channel of transmitting his message to his students. The best way of helping students to learn is to bring them face to face with the world which education intends to introduce to them. This is done by using real things in real life situation. Where real life situations are not possible, the alternative is for the teacher to use representation of real life situations. Whether real or substitutes, they have a common goal. They help the teacher to vary the intended message effectively and meaningfully to the learners so that the learners receive, understand, retain and apply the experiences gained to reach overall educational goal.
Instructional materials, therefore constitute those things the teacher uses to teach and the learners learn. They are the variety of materials which can be used to make our lesson more vivid, interesting and more understandable to our students. They result in more effective learning of factual information, and skills in less time than mere verbalization (Eregha, 2008). The paper Study thus highlights the need and applications of ICT as veritable teaching tools in the teaching and learning of political science. The problem here is that the globalised World, ICT tend to play major role in teaching – learning process. This we lack in Nigeria and the inability of governments at all levels to incorporates policies aimed at the application of ICT in teaching and learning, the falling standard of education may not improved. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) equipment are the most appropriate instructional material in the global world and Nigeria will benefit so much from the application of ICT in the teaching and learning of political science and every other field of study.
Michaelis (1956) writing on the concept of political science, stated that it embraces materials which are related to human relationships drawn from history, geography, economics, anthropology, sociology, science and the arts. Students build competence in basic social processes and skills essential in democratic living. To this end, Ololobo (1986) posited that political science is anchored on effective citizenry of an organized, integrated study of man and his environment, both physical and social, emphasizing cognition, functional skills and desirable attitudes and actions. Political Science is a response towards a goal-oriented education that is geared towards sensitizing young people to solve personal and community related problems with the use of ICTs, hence this research.
It is universally accepted that political science students need the chance to develop faith, self-expression and confidence. Also, they need the ability and skill to learn about themselves, the societal problems and the wider communities in which they live. Political science education has the following objectives to attain such as creating an awareness and understanding of our evolving political ,social and physical environment as a whole in its natural, man-made cultural and spiritual resources together with the rational use and conservation of those resources for national development, developing a capacity to learn and to acquire certain basic skills including not only those of listening, speaking, reading and writing and of calculation, but also those skills of hand and head, together with those of observation, analysis and inferences which are essential to the forming of sound social, economic and political judgment, ensure the acquisition of that relevant body of knowledge and information which is an essential pre-requisite to personal development as well as to a positive personal contribution to the betterment of mankind, developing a sympathetic appreciation of the diversity and inter-dependence of all members of the local community and the wider national and international community, developing in students positive attitudes of togetherness, comradeship and co-operation towards a healthy nation, the inculcation of appropriate values of honesty, integrity, hard work, fairness and justice at work and play as ones contribution to the development of the nations, promotion of an understanding of the social problems of their locality and finding possible solutions to them, development of the ability to think reflectively and come to independent conclusions, creation of awareness that discipline is essential for an orderly society and , demonstration of flexibility and willingness to accept necessary changes within a system. that is, education, government, or law, for the good of all, (Federal Republic of Nigeria,1977, Adaralegbe, Aina, Adeyoyin, Obilo and Ahmadu, 1982).
Osakwe and Itedjere (1993) stated that the objectives of political science education in Nigeria may be categorized into three broad areas namely, comparative politics of African state, information learning, skills attitude and values learning. Writing further, they said that there is no general consensus as to the goals of political science, but that there is a general notion that political science has some influence on the beliefs, and values of its learners and that it invariably produces good citizens for the overall development of the nation and maintain external relations with countries of the world.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There is a universal recognition of the need to use Information and Communication Technology (ICTs) in the educational systems of Nigeria in teaching Political Science in tertiary institution as we are in the era of digitalization where the free flow of information via satellite and the internet hold sway in global dissemination of knowledge in diverse subject area. Nigeria is very slow in embracing the integration of ICTs for teaching in secondary school curriculum. A great deal of instructional and administrative work in College of Education, Ikere Ekiti, were still carried out manually. This is as a result of lack of high cost of computer hardware and software for their application, weak infrastructures, selfish political ambition of individuals, diversion of fund for other purposes in schools, inadequate skilled ICT professionals/teachers, lack of appropriate organizational recognition, unwillingness of teacher to adapt to new trends of teaching, inadequate fund to acquire furniture, textbooks, befitting classroom, cost of subscription to the internet on a regular basis are stumbling block on the ICTs in usage tertiary institutions.
Lecturers and teachers are often accused of over-verbalization. This means excessive use of words to convey meanings. The problem is that we tend to talk too much without really saying anything. We also tend to “talk at” our students instead of tending to “talk with” them. Thus we keep on talking regardless of students’ non-verbal signals that they are bored or even completely lost. In this modern society, schools and higher institution needs ICTs to aid their teaching and learning and educational management so as to meet up with the technological development of the 21st Century. As a result of the above the idea of the study was conceived to investigate the significance of ICT in teaching Political Science in tertiary institution, College of Education, Ikere Ekiti in particular.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
- To examine the impact of ICT in teaching Political Science in tertiary institution.
- Attitude of students and lecturers towards the use of ICT in teaching and learning ICT
- To know the various challenges and bottleneck confronting the use of ICT in teaching Political Science in tertiary institution, and proffer an appropriate solution.
- What is the significance of ICT in teaching Political Science in tertiary institution in Nigeria?
- What are the attitude of students and lecturers towards the use of ICT in the institution?
- What are the various challenges militating against the use of ICT in teaching Political Science in tertiary institutions in Nigeria?
H0: There is no significant difference between ICT and teaching of political science in tertiary institution.
H0: There is no significant difference between the attitudes of students and the teaching and leanring of political science in tertiary institution.
H0: There is no significant difference between the challenges of facing ICT and teaching of political science in tertiary institution.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of ICT in the World can not be over emphasized. Information systems are used in almost every business sector, government agencies, manufacturing, accounting, marketing etc. To benefit from the uses of ICT, teachers need to make good use of them. They need to be used as instructional material since they make learning more meaningful and concrete. They can be applied in various ways during teaching. However, there are some challenges such as security, electricity, personnel etc. It is the view of this study that these challenges can be reduced if governments at all levels increase funding of ICT, and positive attitude towards implementation of ICT policies. Internet centres should be cited in all schools at subsidized rate in order to promote computer literacy of all citizens and easy access to information and computer literacy awareness campaign should be carried out in the country just as it is done for HIV.
ICT is so important to sustainable development in Nigeria hence the Federal Government of Nigeria in May 24, 2001; launched the National Policy for Information Technology (IT). Later, the National Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Strategic Action Plan Committee was inaugurated and mandated to draw up an e-strategy action plan and programmes that compliment national development objectives and priorities, to recommend potentially successful projects and programmes on a sector-by-sector basis whose implementation would drive ICT growth in Nigeria, and to develop bench marks, deliverables and timelines for the Strategic Action Plan and Programmes (FGN, 2001). The overall goal of the policy was to make Nigeria an IT capable country in Africa and a key player in the Information Society, using IT as the engine for sustainable development and global competitiveness. To achieve these objectives, education must play a major role. Here, the uses of ICT in teaching Political Science are our main concern. Because, it is one of the disciplines that create the necessary and sufficient knowledge for leadership in a state.
The study will employ the use of descriptive statistics. Both primary data and secondary source of data would be appropriate means of eliciting information from the respondents in the study area through the use of the questionnaires and interview. The primary data consists of data that are gathered from the real source, instead of the already made data, while secondary data are data that are gathered through the already prepared materials.
JUSTIFICATION FOR THE STUDY
The role of Information and communication technology in teaching and learning in tertiary institutions is on the high increase, to the extent that developing countries cannot be left out in this trend. Therefore, the use of ICT is rapidly becoming one of the most important and widely discussed issues in contemporary education policy around the world. Most experts in the field of education agreed that when Information and Communication Technology is used in the teaching and learning processes, it will improve and boost the ego of the schools to a large extent, to this end, it has been indicated that computer illiteracy is now regarded as the new illiteracy. This has actually gingered a new and strong desire to equip schools with computer facilities and qualified personnel necessary to produce technologically proficient and efficient students in developed and less developed countries of this world. The need for the use of ICT in teaching political science in tertiary institution cannot be over emphasized, as it help the teachers and the students alike in they supply a concrete basis for conceptual thinking and reduce meaningless word responses of students, they make learning more permanent since the students see what they hear, and they offer a reality of experiences, which stimulates self-activity on the part of the students.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study frame work will cover the use of ICT in teaching Political Science in tertiary institutions. Since it will be difficult to carried out the study in all the tertiary institutions in Nigeria, College of Education, Ikere Ekiti was selected to be the study area.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
In carrying out this study, the limitation that is imminent and obvious is the non-disclosure of the official secret usually refers as government gazette by the institution visited. Another limitation is the unwilling attitude of respondents particularly students on answering or responding to questionnaires as they usually request for financial inducement. Another limitation to the study is the indisposition of respondents to the interview and discussion.
The above listed and aforementioned challenges would be overcome by dialogue with relevant institutions and agencies to get the necessary information that is need for the study. In addition, the respondents were made to know that the purpose of the study was enhance further study lies not for money making avenue or profit oriented endure, they were therefore encourage to offer their contrition willingly without expecting financial gains.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
Information and Communication Technologies has plethora of definitions because it is used differently by various academics in the field of science and technology. Emadu and Asan (2004) sees ICT as the technology that is used for gathering, storing, processing, sharing, distributing and communicating vocal, pictorial, numerical and textual information through computer networks to various audiences.
Tertiary education also referred to as third stage, third level, and post-secondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education.
Political Science is a social science discipline concerned with the study of the state, nation, government, and politics and policies of government. Aristotle defined it as the study of the state. It deals extensively with the theory and practice of politics, and the analysis of political systems, political behavior, and political culture.
Teaching is the act of imparting knowledge or skill” Terms defining teaching such as imparting, knowledge, and skill are often ambiguous.
ORGANIZATION OF CHAPTERS
The study comprises of five chapters. Chapter one examines background to the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research hypothesis, assumption of the study, significance of the study, research methodology, scope of the study, limitations to the study, definition of terms and organization of chapters. Chapter two deals with the literature review and theoretical framework. Chapter three examines the research methodology, where sampling method, study area, data analysis would be considered. Chapter four looks at data presentation and interpretation. Lastly, chapter five examines the summary, recommendation and conclusion.
Adaralegbe, A. (1981): Preparing Primary School Social Studies Teachers. West Africa J. Edu 75(1)
Carlon, R.A. Gadio, J, (eds) (2002): ICT and the emerging pergamon for life long learning: a world wide education assessment of infrastructure good and practice Amsterdam. International association for evaluation of education achievement.
Cross, R.E. (1958): “Social Sciences and Social Studies In Encyclopedia Americana, Americana cooperation publishers.
EmIkere ye, J.O. (2002): Information and Communication Technologies: Impact of Governance, social and economic development LTTP.
Eregha, E.E (2008): Teaching Method In Political Science Ugehelli. Egba publishers
Federal Government of Nigeria (2001): National Policy For Information Technology (IT); Abuja.
Olobobo, A.F. (1986): Method of teaching Political Science, African press LTD, Ibadan.
Robinson and Lachem (2003) Impact of ICT on the society. International journal of science and technological research (1X2) P 28-37.This Project is is available for the below list of Nigerian State capitals.
Abia Umuahia, Adamawa Yola, Akwa Ibom Uyo, Anambra Awka, Bauchi Bauchi, Bayelsa Yenagoa, Benue Makurdi, Borno Maiduguri, Cross River Calabar, Delta Asaba, Ebonyi Abakaliki, Edo Benin. Ekiti Ado Ekiti, Enugu Enugu, Gombe Gombe, Imo Owerri, Jigawa Dutse, Kaduna Kaduna, Kano Kano, Katsina Katsina, Kebbi Birnin Kebbi, Kogi Lokoja, Kwara Ilorin, Lagos Ikeja, Nasarawa Lafia, Niger Minna, Ogun Abeokuta, Ondo Akure, Osun Oshogbo, Oyo Ibadan, Plateau Jos, Rivers Port Harcourt, Sokoto Sokoto, Taraba Jalingo, Yobe Damaturu, Zamfara Gusau, FCT Abuja.
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