ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF WELL WATER SITUATED AROUND THE VICINITIES OF PETROL FILLING STATIONS IN IKERE-EKITI.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE                 …      …      …      …      …      …      …      …      i

APPROVAL PAGE…   …      …      …      …      …      …      …      …      ii

CERTIFICATION…     …      …      …      …      …      …      …      …      iii

DEDICATION     …      …      …      …      …      …      …      …      …      iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …  …      …      …      …      …      …      …      v

ABSTRACT…     …      …      …      …      …      …      …      …      …      vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS…    …      …      …      …      …      …      …      vii

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction… …      …      …      …      …      …      …      …      1
  • Water… …      …      …      …      …      …      …      …      …      2
  • Environmental Water Quality… …      …      …      …      …      3
  • Water As a Direct Vehicle for Disease Transmission …      …      4
  • Beneficial Health Effects of Water… … …      …      …      …      5
  • Purpose of the Study …      …      …      …      …      …      …      5

CHAPTER TWO

2.1     Review of Related Literature…         …      …      …      …      …      …      6

2.2     Pollution Threat to Well Water…     …      …      …      …      …      7

2.3     Wellwater Pollution and Health Effects of Petrol Station Sites…     8

2.4     Physicochemical Features…    …      …      …      …      …      …      9

CHAPTER THREE

3.1     Materials and Methods…        …      …      …      …      …      …      …      12

3.1     Study Period and Design…     …      …      …      …      …      …      12

3.2     Study Population for Public Health Issues …      …      …      …      12

3.3     Samples, Collection, Transportation and Storage of Wellwater …  12

3.3.1  Samples Collection…    …      …      …      …      …      …      …      12

3.3.2  Groundwater Sample Collection Equipment        …      …      …      …      13

3.4     Sample Preservation…  …      …      …      …      …      …      …      13

3.5     Water Treatment…        …      …      …      …      …      …      …      14

3.6     Water Sampling   …      …      …      …      …      …      …      …      14

3.7     Study Area …      …      …      …      …      …      …      …      …      14

3.8     Methodology        …      …      …      …      …      …      …      …      15

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Result and Discussion…         …      …      …      …      …      …      …      17

4.1     Analysis of Data and Results…        …      …      …      …      …      …      17

4.2     Wellwater Samples Results… …      …      …      …      …      …      17

4.3     Discussions …      …      …      …      …      …      …      …      …      18

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation      …      …      …      …      24

5.1     Summary    …      …      …      …      …      …      …      …      …      25

5.2     Conclusion…       …      …      …      …      …      …      …      …      26

5.3     Recommendation…       …      …      …      …      …      …      …      27

References…        …      …      …      …      …      …      …      …      28

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0               INTRODUCTION

Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and to any human need or purpose. Water quality is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance can be assessed. The most common standards used to assess water quality relate to drinking water, safety of human contact and for health of the ecosystems (Helwey’ 1999).

Another general perception of water quality is that of a simple property that test whether water is polluted or not. (Elaigwu et’ al 2007).

Wellwater quality management with regards to environmental pollution of natural water bodies and the health implications makes it necessary for monitoring the quality of water to ascertain the degree of its contamination, purification and analysis by the application of some treatment processes and analytical techniques. The treatment and analysis technology makes water suitable for industrial and domestic use for sustainable development (Zheng et al, 1995).

1.1     WATER

Wellwater is a common chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of life. Physical properties of water states that water freezes at 00c. It is colourless, it boils at 1000c, when the barometer stands at 760mm, pure water will boil away completely with no change in temperature. It is neutral to litmus paper. It has a pH value of 7. Its maximum density is 1gcm-3 at 40c, it turns anhydrous copper (II) tetraoxosulphate (IV) blue (this test denotes merely the presence at water). (Chapman 2008).

Chemical properties of water also states that water is known as universal solvent because most substances dissolve in it to some extent turning aqueous solution. Oxide of nonmetals dissolve in water to form acid solutions while oxides of metals which are soluble in water form alkaline solution. Water reacts with many materials to liberate hydrogen. Some metals like potassium, sodium and calcium react with cold water while metals like magnesium, aluminum, zinc and iron react with steam. (Jameson et al 2007).

Water moves continually through a cycle of evaporation or transpiration known as evapo transpiration, precipitation, and runoff, into the sea overland, evaporation and transpiration contribute to the precipitation of water over land. Clean fresh drinking water is essential to human and other life.

However, in many parts of the world especially developing countries, there is a water crisis, and it is estimated that by the year 2025 more than half of the world population will be facing water-based vulnerability. Water plays an important role in the world economy, as it functions as a solvent for a wide variety of chemical substance and  facilitates industrial cooling, transportation and for irrigation in agriculture.

 

1.2     ENVIRONMENTAL WATER QUALITY

Environmental wellwater quality, also called ambient water quality, relates to water bodies such as lakes, rivers and oceans. Wellwater quality standards vary significantly due to different environmental condition, ecosystems, and intended human uses. Toxic substances and high populations of certain micro-organisms can present a health hazards for non-drinking purposes such as irrigation, swimming, fishing, rafting, boating and industrial uses. These conditions may also affect wide life which uses the water for drinking or as a habitant. Modern water quality laws general specify protection of fisheries and recreational use and require as a minimum, retention of current quality standards. Environmental lawyer and policy makers work to define legislation that ensure that water is maintained at an appropriate quality for its identified use in the environment.

 

1.3     WATER AS A DIRECT VEHICLE FOR DISEASE TRANSMISSION

Research has confirmed at least thirty six infectious diseases that probably can be transmitted directly by water. They include twelve diseases caused by bacteria, four by viruses, nineteen by protozoa and other parasites and one by several different infections agents. Examples,  areamebiasis, balantidiasis, and giardiasis caused by protozoan; angiostrongyliasis, anisakiasis, hepatic capillaniasis and gnathostomiasis caused by nematodes; cholera, enteropathogenic diarrhea, leptospirosis salmonellosis and typhoid fever caused by bacteria, fascioliasis, paragonimiasis and schistosomiasis caused by trematodes.(Helwey,1999).

1.4     BENEFICIAL HEALTH EFFECTS OF WATER

Various benefits accrue from water and its constituents namely;

1.4.1  Satisfying our metabolic needs for water, without which life can only continue for a short time. It is crucial for survival.

1.4.2  Several chemicals in water are beneficial.

1.4.2a Fluoride reduce dental caries among young people.

  1. Iodine prevent goiter.
  2. Calcium and Magnesium offset negative effects of sodium in hypertension and heart disease.
  3. Trace minerals insure human nutritional requirements

1.4.3  Agent of improved cleanliness and general sanitation. Better water supply facilities usually lead to a reduction in many water diseases for example United Nation International Children Education Fund (UNICEF) water programmes in Third World Countries.

 

PURPOSE OF STUDY

The purpose of this study is to assess the physicochemical parameter of wellwater situated around the vicinities of petrol filling stations in Ikere-Ekiti. and to ascertain the level of fitness for drinking for the people whose well waters are sited around petrol filling stations.

 

 

 

This Project is is available for the below list of Nigerian State capitals.
Abia Umuahia, Adamawa Yola, Akwa Ibom Uyo, Anambra Awka, Bauchi Bauchi, Bayelsa Yenagoa, Benue Makurdi, Borno Maiduguri, Cross River Calabar, Delta Asaba, Ebonyi Abakaliki, Edo Benin. Ekiti Ado Ekiti, Enugu Enugu, Gombe Gombe, Imo Owerri, Jigawa Dutse, Kaduna Kaduna, Kano Kano, Katsina Katsina, Kebbi Birnin Kebbi, Kogi Lokoja, Kwara Ilorin, Lagos Ikeja, Nasarawa Lafia, Niger Minna, Ogun Abeokuta, Ondo Akure, Osun Oshogbo, Oyo Ibadan, Plateau Jos, Rivers Port Harcourt, Sokoto Sokoto, Taraba Jalingo, Yobe Damaturu, Zamfara Gusau, FCT Abuja.

HOW TO ORDER FOR COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

STEP 1

Complete Project Price: ₦3,000 (We accept mobile tranfer)

» Bank Branch Deposits, ATM/online transfers (Amount: ₦3,000 NGN)

Bank: FIRST BANK Account Name: OMOOGUN TAIYE Account Number: 3116913871 Account Type: SAVINGS Amount: ₦3,000 AFTER PAYMENT, TEXT YOUR TOPIC AND VALID EMAIL ADDRESS TO 07064961036 OR 08068355992 OR Click Here

Bank: ACCESS BANK Account Name: OMOOGUN TAIYE Account Number: 0766765735 Account Type: SAVINGS Amount: ₦3,000 AFTER PAYMENT, TEXT YOUR TOPIC AND VALID EMAIL ADDRESS TO 07064961036 OR 08068355992 Click Here

Bank: HERITAGE BANK Account Name: OMOOGUN TAIYE Account Number: 1909068248 Account Type: SAVINGS Amount: ₦3,000 AFTER PAYMENT, TEXT YOUR TOPIC AND VALID EMAIL ADDRESS TO 07064961036 OR 08068355992 Click Here
 

STEP 2.

Send Your Details and Project topic To us by filling this form.
(Visited 20 times, 1 visits today)

Related Topics

SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN TREATMENT OF MA... INTRODUCTION Malaria is the world’s most important parasite disease especially when plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent. Malaria is en...
EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CHAPTER ONE   INTRODUCTION   1.1.      Background of the study   Industrialization has a significant role in econo...
SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND CONTRACEPTIVE PRACTICES AMONG... TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page                                                                                i Certification                 ...
COMMON ILLNESSES AMONG BOARDING SECONDARY SCHOOL S... Doctor holding out stethescope CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background of the study It is universally understood that the health of school ch...

Prayertitus

Am an Internet Freak, a tech Geek, Singer, and a funny Guy.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *