AVAILABILITY AND MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES FOR TEACHING PRACTICAL AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ONDO STATE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
Background of the Study
Statement of Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Assumption of the study
Definition of Term
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Effective management of resources for teaching practical agriculture
Resources for teaching practical agriculture
Important of resources in teaching practical Science
Ways of improving the concept of practical agriculture
Measure for stimulating interest in practical agriculture
Population of the study
Samples and sampling techniques
Instrument for data collection
Validation of the instrument
Reliability of the instrument
Administration of the instrument
Data analysis techniques
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
Analysis of Research Question
Discussion of Result
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This study investigates Availability and management of resources for teaching practical agricultural science in secondary schools in ondo State. The study examined the various resources available form teaching practical agriculture , how teaching resources cab be effectively managed, and the problem encountered in the teaching of practical agriculture. In views of these, five research questions were formulated. This study was a description research survey type.120 respondents were used for the study. A well-structured questionnaire was used for data collection and the data were analyzed using simple percentage and mean. The study revealed that among others that teaching resources are available in the study area, also teaching resources are effectively manage in the schools. The study therefore recommended that, Stake holders should make provision for the resources that are not available. Government should organize seminar, workshop and conference for newly-recruited teachers and teachers without teaching experience. Teachers and other staff involved in teaching of agricultural science in schools should be well supervised and taken care of.
Background of the study
Management of resources for teaching practical agriculture in schools is very essential for inculcating and developing functional knowledge and skills in learners. Resources are devices developed or acquired to assist secondary school teachers in transmitting organized knowledge, skills and attitude to learners within an institutional situation directed toward learning acquisition of skills for work. Nwandu (1994) added that instructional materials are resources which may be used by the teacher and the learner either in isolation or in combination, formally to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge, skills and morals. Mkpa (2007) maintained that teaching resources include all the material or resources, which the teacher and in fact the entire class utilize for the purpose of making teaching-learning more effective. Its effective management in schools has to do with the teacher’s ability to see it as communicative gadgets, tools, equipment that can be manipulated and utilized for effective and efficient teaching and leaning during teaching process.
The scope of management of resources in schools is it primary, secondary or tertiary institution cut-across the extent of availability, adequacy, and utilization of such instructional materials in those schools. The availability and adequacy of suitable resources for teaching and learning process in secondary schools is crucial for the attainment of broad and specific objectives of secondary education. Thus its effective management whether improvised or already made ones have to be encouraged in schools for maximum and efficient learning activities among teachers and students. Availability has been defined by Olaitan, Nwachukwu, Igbo, Onyemachi & Ekong (1999) as a state of making provision for teaching resources to enhance effective activities in teaching process in schools. A solid foundation for teaching and learning process in schools depend upon adequate provision of teaching.
A resourceful and creative teacher can construct most of the needed instructional materials and at the same time teach her students how these materials could be constructed; thus helping them to related their textbook learning to the environment. According to Akpan (1988) a good strategy for the acquisition of instructional material lies in preparing a list of these materials needed, make requisitions, proposals and plans coupled with sheer persistence. This strategy would help to an extent in acquiring teaching resources in schools.
Resources can be described as facilities materials and equipment used in promoting practical projects on the fields and classroom. Resources can also encompass the supply of an asset to be used when needed, available assets, strategies for dealing with difficulties and the ability to funds such strategies. Resources can be classified as human resources, materials resources and physical resources. Human resources are the custodians of other learning resources. They include the school personnel capable of improving and administering the other learning resources and community resources. In other words, they are the professional who could be invited to the school to give a career talk or lecture on their professions or trade. James S.A. (2015).
The human race needs food for survival. This needs can only be met through agriculture. Agriculture is the art and science of cultivating the land, rearing of animals and should be taught not only theoretically but practically as well. Nigeria is predominantly an agricultural country (Harold, 1992). The country is so much blessed with vast fertile land and human resources that she should not only be able to feed her teeming population but also export food crops to other countries Akinsanmi, (1997). It is therefore disheartening to observe that despite all these vast resources, majority of her population are at threshold of starvation. Agricultural science is important to the nation because it had been the mainstay of Nigeria’s economy.
Practical Agriculture is seen as the fundamental principle of returning man to the farm. Practical Agriculture which remains a vital component and constituent of the study of agriculture, if has always been well argued that, the direct impact the practical aspect of agricultural science has on the subject is un-measurable, little wonder even the WAEC syllabus strictly indicates that, the practical aspect must constitute the basics of teaching the subject.
The introduction and teaching of practical agriculture, facilitates the process of acquisition, of the conceptual knowledge
The term practical agriculture is an umbrella word, that holds “ practical” and “ Agriculture”, this words has been defined as one by the Tokyo University of Agriculture Journal (2001) as the fundamental principle of returning man to the farm. It has also been seen as the act and practices of the various agricultural activities.
Practical agriculture has enormous impacts in secondary schools. It is generally agreed that practical work facilitates the process of acquisition of basic knowledge and practical skills that prepares students for occupation in agriculture practical agriculture in secondary schools has been a strong base where young mind students are been introduced to the interesting and practical aspect of the subject as said by Samuel .I. (2004) in his book “practical agriculture.
Practical agriculture also add to the students practical knowledge, practical agriculture makes the subject expand from just theory into a conglomeration of theory and practical, where these students have the opportunity to practice all what they have learnt in the class.
Practical agriculture also add to the students academic performance, agricultural science examination are mostly in two forms practical and theory, and the students seizes the practical aspect as an opportunity to help boost and upgrade their deficiencies in the theory aspects even the West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) syllabus gives sufficient room for practical agriculture amidst other practical science subjects and practical skills that prepares students for a career in agricultural sector.
However, the agricultural education in Nigerian Secondary schools is still non vocational because the theoretical portion outweighs the practical portion (Udo, 2000). The teaching of agriculture can be made more effective by the use of locally available aids. The persistent call by science educators as far back as two decades ago to improvise simple science equipment for use at the primary schools levels is a clear indication of their non-availability. Although all teachers use some visual aids, many do not use nearly enough but relying too heavily on words and ignoring the powerful effect of signs on understanding and recalling (Onazi, 1983). Instructional materials are the devices developed or acquired to assist or facilitate teachers in transmitting organized knowledge, skills and attitudes to the learners within an instructional situation (Nwachukwu, 2006). It is not enough for the instructional materials to be available in schools; they must be put to use in order to enhance the facilitation of learning on the part of the learners. When instructional materials are properly used in teaching they help to cohere abstract concepts and put the elements of reality into ideas that may seem impracticable (Akinbade, 1999). It is also believed that they help the learners’ memory such that they easily recollect what they were taught when the idea is needed. Literature has confirmed that instructional materials of all types and forms enhance students’ academic performance in various subjects (Adeyanju, 1991; Salawu, 1999).
Statement of Problem
The need for proper management of resources to promote teaching and learning of practical agriculture in Secondary Many attempts have been made in this direction but no appreciable positive result have been recorded. The problem of making teaching resources available in schools is one of the major issues conforming most teachers in Ekiti state lack teaching resources for teaching and learning of agriculture practical. Noticeably, not even one school in Ondo state could boast of being well equipped with necessary instructional materials. Where these teaching resources exist at all, the rate at which school administrator and classroom teachers manage them is not encouraging. This has become a problem to many school authorities and parents too. The secondary school administrators have lamented bitterly about the inadequate provision of teaching resources in their schools. According to them, this has been the cause of poor management of resources by classroom teachers during teaching-learning process. As a result of this students are denied the opportunity of learning with these materials in the classroom. Also the problem of maintenance is equally affecting the good management of teaching resources in secondary schools. Finally, the level at which teaching resources are managed for teaching learning process in secondary schools needs to be re-examine. As a result of the above problem, the study seeks to investigate the availability and management of resources for the teaching practical agriculture in secondary schools.
Purpose of the study
The major purpose of this study was to examine availability and management of resources for teaching practical agriculture in secondary school in Ondo- State
Specific purposes of the study are to;
- Examine the resources available for teaching practical agriculture in the secondary school.
- Examine how teaching resources can be effectively manage in teaching practical agriculture in secondary schools
- To examine the extent to which teacher make use of teaching resources in teaching practical agriculture
- Examine the problems encountered in the teaching of practical in agriculture in secondary school.
- Examine the benefit of using the resources for teaching practical agriculture in secondary schools.
The study will provide answers to the following research questions:
- What are the available resources to teach practical agriculture in the laboratory in secondary schools?
- To what extent are the teaching resources effectively manage in secondary schools
- To what extent does teacher make use of teaching resources in teaching practical agriculture?
- What are the benefits of using materials for teaching practical agriculture in the farm?
- What are problems encountered in the teaching of practical agriculture in secondary schools?
Hypothesis of the study
The following hypothesis were tested in the study
- There is no significant different on the availability of resources in teaching practical agriculture
- Teaching resources are not effectively manage in teaching practice agriculture in secondary schools
Significance of the study
This study is significant because finding arising from it will add to the existing literature or information or knowledge with regard to the factors affecting availability of resources for teaching practical agriculture in secondary schools.
Scope of the study
The research focused on availability of resources for teaching practical agricultural science in secondary schools in Ondo State.
Assumption of the study
In carrying out research the following assumption were made
- Teacher of agriculture in secondary schools do not pay more attention on practical agricultural science.
- Teacher of agriculture in secondary school do not allocate much time on the school time table for practical agricultural science.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Teacher qualification: – level of training obtained by teachers that qualify them to handle the subject
- Field work: – this is refers to practical work carried out on field.
- Teaching method: these are the modern methods used in teaching practical agriculture
- Utility of Resources: Useful ends: To make use.
- Attitudes toward practical agriculture: in this study it is referred to as a general feeling or emotional disposition towards practical as a school subject.
- Resources: Wealth, supplies of good raw materials. Which a person country has or can use.
- Practical: Concerned with practical (contrasted with theoretical) overcome the difficulties of a scheme.
- Teaching: Gives instruction to cause to know or be able to do, give knowledge/skill or give lesson at school. Discussion of a subject of topical interest as help in a college, with students, staff and other speakers.
- Agriculture Education: This is the application of scientific principles and new technologies to agriculture.
This Project is is available for the below list of Nigerian State capitals.
Abia Umuahia, Adamawa Yola, Akwa Ibom Uyo, Anambra Awka, Bauchi Bauchi, Bayelsa Yenagoa, Benue Makurdi, Borno Maiduguri, Cross River Calabar, Delta Asaba, Ebonyi Abakaliki, Edo Benin. Ekiti Ado Ekiti, Enugu Enugu, Gombe Gombe, Imo Owerri, Jigawa Dutse, Kaduna Kaduna, Kano Kano, Katsina Katsina, Kebbi Birnin Kebbi, Kogi Lokoja, Kwara Ilorin, Lagos Ikeja, Nasarawa Lafia, Niger Minna, Ogun Abeokuta, Ondo Akure, Osun Oshogbo, Oyo Ibadan, Plateau Jos, Rivers Port Harcourt, Sokoto Sokoto, Taraba Jalingo, Yobe Damaturu, Zamfara Gusau, FCT Abuja.
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