CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF DRUG ABUSE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ADO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

According to the Department of Phamacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria (2002) expressed that Drug addiction among youths and young ones has become a serious public health problem across the World. Drugs with addictive include the non-therapeutic drugs which are Legal (tobacco, alcohol; caffeine) and those drugs which are illegal for use are; benzodiazepines, heroine and marijuana.

The challenge of cannabis and tobacco abuse and addition is particularly, in Nigeria. This ugly possible situation, the use of drugs continues unless strong and its control remains difficult.

The free encyclopedia, tobacco may be consumed by either smoking or chewing methods. The World Health Organisation (WHO) collected data on smoked tobacco. Smoking has been studied more great in amount than any other form of consumption.

2002, they practicalized smoking by 1.03 billion people, predicted to rise to 1.23 billion People in 2012 and 1.1 to 1.5 billion by 2027. If prevalence has decreased by 2% a year since 2002 this figure would have been 1.1 billion in 2012 and 2027.

Dropping by 0.4 percent from 2011, to 2012, the United Kingdom still reports average of 17.9 percent usage.

It is five times more prevalent among men than women, however the gender gap reduces with younger age. Developed countries rates smoking for males have peaked and have started to fall, for females they continue to rise. As of 2004, around twenty percent of young ones (11-13) smoke everywhere m the world, 70,000 to 90,000 children taking up the behaviour every day rougedly of who lives in Asia, part of those who smokes in teenager years are allowed to go on to smoke for 16 to 20 years.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) says “most of the disease burden and immature mortality contributed to tobacco use disproportionately affect the poor of the 1.2 billion smokers, I billion of them live in developing or transitional nations. The way by which smoking erased or decreased in developed country. In the developing country, tobacco smoking in increasing by 3 2 % per year as of 2004

The World Health Organisation in the year 2006 projected 54.4 million is tobacco attributed and 4.7 million as of 2009. In the year 2004 80 % of deaths are in civilized countries. It is shift in prevalence of tobacco smoking to a teenager demographic, precisely in the developing country can be attached to several factors. Tobacco Company spends up to $ 10.2 billion dollars annually on publicity, which is increasingly geared towards the teenagers’ age in the caviling country because they are very acceptable by the audience for the marketing campaigns.

Teenagers have more difficulty understanding the long term effects that are joined with smoking and are more influenced by “images of romance, success, sophistication, popularity and adventure which publicity suggests they could achieve through the consumption of cigarettes”. The shift in marketing-towards teenagers and even the young ones in the tobacco company is debilitating to organizations and countries’ ability to improve young ones health and mortality in civilizing country.

This reverses the effects of the work that has been done to increase health care in these countries, and although smoking is seen as a “voluntary health risk, the selling of tobacco towards very impressionable young ones in the civilizing country makes it reduce En a voluntary action and more of an inevitable shift.

In the year 1935 a scientist from Germany detected that smoking caused cancer of the lung. In 1938 a scientist from University raised a strongly negative correlation between smoking and life span.

In 1950 studies were printed where “smoking was greatly implicated in the causation of lung cancer”, all of these include the now classic paper” Smoking and carcinoma of the lungs” that appeared in the British journal. The print reported those” heavy smokers were fifty times as likely as those that does not smoke to contact lung cancer.

In the year 1953 a scientist at the one of institute in New York practiced that cigarette tar painted on the skin of mice caused cancers. The work attracted most media attention; the New York Times and life both covered the issue. The readers’ Digest published an article entitled”

A group of British Scientist headed by a man called Richard carried out longitudinal study of 30, 129 medical specialists from 1962 to 2002, generally called the “Doctors in British studies”. The study practiced that about average of the persistent cigarette smokers born 1900-1910 were killed by their habit. After a ban on smoking in all enclosed public places were introduced in Scotland in March 2006.

There was a 15 percent that reduced in the hospital for acute coronary syndrome, 65% of the decrease occurred in those that doesn’t smoke. Health effects of tobacco have been significant for the development of the science of epidemiology. The mechanism of carcinogenicity is radiomimetic, these effects are stochastic.

The statements that can be made only on the relative increased or decreased probabilities of contacting a given disease. It is impossible to definitively prove a direct causalities link between exposure to a radiomimetic poison such as smoking of tobacco and the lung cancer that follows. Tobacco industries have capitalized on this philosophical objection and exploited the doubts of clinicians, who consider only individual cases on the casual link in the stochastic expression of the toxicity as actual disease.

 

Statement of the Problem

Smoking and smoke related problems in our Country (Nigeria) are not yet know.

Reports from dailies as well as oral and expository writings that have exposed the meaner of the increased dangers of smoking of cigarette from tobacco and marijuana and other forms of consuming them either by snuffing, chewing among the young ones.

World Health Organisation (WHO) by the Theme “Health for the year 2002”, has warned that smoking is dangerous to health and are considered to be poison.   The body word poison on every packet of cigarette available for sale to consumers in the global world. Smoking has been studied more carefully than any other form of abused drug. In 2009, smoking was practical by 1.1 billion people, predicted to rise to 1.25 billion people in 2012 and 1.1 to 1.5 billion people by 2027. Smoking is more prevalent among men and women, the gender gap decline with younger age.

In the civilizing countries, smoking rate has peaked. There are available evidence in which the present unemployment has helped to add to the adolescent taking to smoking cigarette and marijuana. Up till to the year 2004 according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) almost twenty percent of young ones (11- 15) years smoke in the World 60,000 to 80,000 young ones were addicted everyday, nearly most of those who live in Africa most of those who started smoking in early years of their age are projected to go on to smoke not less than 14 to 20 years.

World Health Organisation (WHO) said that most of the disease burden and immature mortality is attachable to tobacco use disproportionately affect the poor of about 1.1 billion smokers, 1 billion of these people live in civilizing country in the World. So far independence successive governments in the Country (Nigeria) have started to uphold relevant laws controlling smoking of cigarette, and stop planting, distribution and smoking of cannabis. Tobacco smoking seen to pose a serious challenges to the government world wide as the solution to the problem is not in sight.

Federal government of this country (Nigeria) through National Drug Law and Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) is making it possible to discourage all forms of hand drugs.

Moreover, Ado state government counterpart work hand in hand to stop planting and smoking of cannabis in their areas. Problems of smoking cannabis among the young ones have led to social harassment in the society. Among these are College riots, thuggery, armed robbery, rape and academic failure among the colleagues.

Therefore, It is expected that with this inscription “poison”, Smoking is dangerous to your health” and those that smoke are liable to die early, strong reduction in the number of people that smoke especially among the young ones should introduce. Reduction in smoking call for adequate investigation.

 

What are the Objectives of the Research

The Objectives of the research are to:

  1. inspect and identify the effects of smoking from the smokers?
  2. determine who are the smokers?

iii.      access the smokers awareness about the dangers? In smoking hard drug (i.e.          Cannabis and Tobacco?)

  1. determine why people smoke cigarette?
  2. determine relationship between smokers and non smokers?

 

Research Question

These are the research questions answered in this study

  1. Is it easy for you to point out a smoker without handling cigarette? What are the signs
  2. How much do you spend on cigarette per week?
  3. When have you been smoking?
  4. Does smoking affect you when you smoke?
  5. What advantages do you derive from smoking?
  6. When you smoke how do people react to you when you get to their midst?
  7. Is your family happy about your smoking?
  8. Which of the smokeable do you smoke?
  9. Will you advice anybody to smoke?

 

Importance Of The Study

This study is attached to the health effects to tobacco and cannabis smoking among youth and young ones in the society with special reference to Ado Local government Ekiti State

With the World Health Organisation, shortly studies, every year most of people all over the World die from medical complications caused by smoking.

Result of this study is likely to increase the quality of the awareness on the dangers inherent in smoking tobacco and cannabis by the young ones and youth, and will help to draw the attention of relevant authorities to the health effects of tobacco and cannabis use.

Therefore, it is expected that this study likely to add earlier contributions made by researchers in this area, assisting smokers and those that are planning to be, to improve their mechanisms towards the consumption of drugs.

Area of The Study

The study has used a local government area of Ado      state; that is Ado Local Government, Ekiti state Nigeria.

Covered area are:

Who are the smokers

The  effects of smoking from smokers’ relationship between smokers and non smokers. Awareness of smokers about the dangerous in smoking cannabis and tobacco.

It examines the problems of smoking cigarette and cannabis and its effects on social behaviour of the person that smoke and the social life of the community.

The study is limited to teenagers 13-17 years and youths they are most likely to provide honest and correct answers to oral interview.

Definition of Terms

These terms were repeatedly used in the study

Smoke: Grey white or black gas produced by burning e.g. cigarette, cannabis and cloud of thick, billowed from the car exhaust

Tobacco: The dried leaves of the tobacco plant used for making cigarette or chewed

Drug abuse: Excessive use, unconducive to health or unrelated to accepted medical practice. (World Health Organisation)

Smoking: Habit of smoking tobacco or marijuana

Nicotine: adducted substance found in cigarette, it is actually one of the most habit forming substances that exists. In fact, nicotine addition is often compared to the intense addictiveness associated with opiates like heroin.

This Project is is available for the below list of Nigerian State capitals.
Abia Umuahia, Adamawa Yola, Akwa Ibom Uyo, Anambra Awka, Bauchi Bauchi, Bayelsa Yenagoa, Benue Makurdi, Borno Maiduguri, Cross River Calabar, Delta Asaba, Ebonyi Abakaliki, Edo Benin. Ekiti Ado Ekiti, Enugu Enugu, Gombe Gombe, Imo Owerri, Jigawa Dutse, Kaduna Kaduna, Kano Kano, Katsina Katsina, Kebbi Birnin Kebbi, Kogi Lokoja, Kwara Ilorin, Lagos Ikeja, Nasarawa Lafia, Niger Minna, Ogun Abeokuta, Ondo Akure, Osun Oshogbo, Oyo Ibadan, Plateau Jos, Rivers Port Harcourt, Sokoto Sokoto, Taraba Jalingo, Yobe Damaturu, Zamfara Gusau, FCT Abuja.

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