CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE
Background of the Study
Examination has been viewed in different ways by different authors, educationists and researchers. According to Kailani and Usman (2009), examination is an organized assessment technique which presents individuals with a series of questions or tasks geared towards ascertaining, if the individual acquired skills and knowledge.
Riahim (2014), also define examination as a formal test of somebody‟s knowledge, skills or ability in a particular subject, especially by means of oral and written questions or practical exercise. In all countries of the world, examination which are in reality and frequently used in competitions, are designed to eliminate the majority of candidates and allocate the remainder to certain known vacancies.
Examination malpractice has been defined differently by educators, authors, researchers, administrators and supervisors. Onuoha (2009) defined examination malpractice as unfair practices or irregularities or infringement or irregularities during the conduct of examination. He posited that examination malpractice in recent times has become a threat to the integrity of the nation. As a cankerworm, it has eaten deep into the fabric of the education industry, thus becoming a global issue which has caused some sleepless nights to many genuine academics and scholars. In spite of the crusade made against it by the government and other lovers of education, it still grows speedily more than ever. To Ahmed (2010), examination malpractice is any act of wrongdoing or neglect that contravenes the rules and regulations of acceptable practice before, during and after an examination by any reason. Nowadays, it is not uncommon to hear people discuss examination malpractice as if it is a custom. Perpetrators of this social menace view it as an act which everybody partakes in, hence it is generally acceptable. Therefore, it is not impossible these days to see students with distinction in the west African Examination Certificate (WAEC) Senior School certificate Examination (SSCE), General certificate in Education (GCE) or the equivalent or even first class and second class upper in the universities who cannot defend the certificate. The reason behind it is nothing but examination malpractice which has sucked deep into virtually all levels of the education system. These acts are unbecoming and need to be curtailed. It is a disease; it calls for the attention of all and sundry.
Nwahunanye (2004) posited that some years back, the decision to attend secondary school was in itself a crucial vocational choice. Secondary school education has as one of its objectives; to provide education of higher level, irrespective of sex, social status, religious or ethnic background. National Policy on Education (2004) section 5 sub – section 22 (a) lamented „the extent to which these objectives are being achieved in teaching and learning in secondary schools as in every other level of education is usually appraised or evaluated through examination‟. It is also impossible for one to obtain an academic certificate after passing through an institution without being evaluated. The reverse is also the case due to the way some of our undergraduates see the pursuit of good academic certificate as a do or die affaire.
During examination periods, students prepare for the examination in different ways. Some read a month before the examination. Some still prefer using the night before the examination to write down points which they would take into the examination hall. These are mostly the category of students who do not see any reason to prepare for the exercise but rely on “expo” to succeed. In the examination halls, the perpetrators of this unwholesome act operate in divergent ways as they want to make good grades and reap where they did not sow.
Examination misconduct in the hall can take the form of giraffing / peeping from another person‟s examination papers, writing on the palms, desks and piece of papers, smuggling of examination halls and so on and so forth. Outside the halls, the misconduct can take the shape of sorting of the already written examinations either through the teachers or their agents. This cankerworm has eaten deep into the fabrics of the Nigerian educational system; thereby, rending our educational institutions hopeless. They are so unbecoming that if nothing is done and no time too, our secondary school education and other levels of education will be mess.
Commenting on the issue of examination misconduct, Argungy, (2007). remarks that government is the major cause of examination malpractice. He went further to describe the government salary system as just staving wages cities an example with the secondary school teachers. He said that if teachers were well paid, they would see no reason to aid or be involved in examination malpractice. One is not saying here that high salary and allowances will totally stop examination malpractice, it will help to curb it. However, it is pointless dragging the argument as to who is responsible for the cases of examination malpractice in our secondary schools. It is equally illogical to think that one particular group, whether students, teachers, government or the society can solve the problem of examination misconduct in our secondary schools. Those who are concerned, directly or indirectly with the educational system should share the responsibility of curbing the menace of examination misconduct in our secondary schools and other levels of education. It is not that nothing has been done on the issue of examination malpractice. The history of examination misconduct in Nigeria is quite old. The problem assumed a national character in 1967. Then a committee was set up to carry out an investigation into the explosion of examination malpractice that year. Also decree No. 25 of 1993 on examination leakage imposes a penalty of five (5) years imprisonment or an option of two thousand naira fine on any person found guilty in connection with examination leakage. Despite this, examination malpractice is still being witnessed and practiced. Its fruits are educated illiterate undergraduates.
In order to ameliorate the incidence of examination misconduct, and in fact, improve the standard of our secondary school education, it is necessary to unveil the modus operandi and multifarious strategies adopted by the perpetrators of this unwholesome and un-academic act and alert students of the ugly effects, academically and other wise. The awareness will help the authorities to check the current pervasiveness of examination malpractice in our secondary schools and other institutions of higher learning.
Statement of the Problem
The problem which this project work is set to investigate as envisaged by the researchers is on the causes and effects of examination malpractices among secondary school students, especially in Ughelli North local Government Area. This is important as questions have been raised concerning the issue of examination malpractice. Such questions include:
- Are there causes and effects of examination malpractice hindering our education system?
- What are those factors and in what ways have they hampered examination?
- Are these other factors hindering the educational system?
The aim of the research is to find out the answers to those questions during the research work and make efforts to examine the causes and effects of the menace called examination malpractice.
This is important because according to Umaru (2005), researches showed that more than 60% of university graduate in our society today and many undergraduates perpetrate the acts examination misconduct which has simultaneously ravaged the system and made students handicapped towards reading and ardent study. It is therefore, imperative to checkmate this ugly development in our educational industry before it rubbishes it completely.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to find out the causes and effects of examination malpractice in secondary schools, especially in Ughelli North Local Government Area of Delta State . Basically, the study seeks to:
- Ascertain the factors that brings about examination malpractice in secondary schools;
- Ascertain the effects of examination malpractice on the performance of secondary school students;
- Ascertain appropriate control measures towards curbing examination malpractice in secondary schools.
Significance of the Study
The imperativeness of this study cannot be underrated. The study will be of high significance in that it will help the following categories of people in the following ways:
- The students: This study will serve as an eye opener to the students in knowing the negative effects / consequences of involving oneself the act of examination malpractice.
- The teachers: This research work will serve as information to the teachers on existing forms of examination malpractice / misconduct practiced by students as well as ways of controlling them. Some lecturers are no longer dedicated to their school time table. Some deliver half baked lessons. They leave their notes for students to copy. Such students copy whatever and hand it back to the teacher who does not care whether students understand the content of the lesson or not. No students want to fail. They therefore seek for means to succeed. These students therefore engage themselves in various forms of examination malpractice.
- Education Authorities: The teachers, the authorities will benefit immensely from this study as it will help keep them informed on the recent techniques involved in examination malpractice causes and at the same time open their eyes to the need to. School authorities on their own part do not help matters. Inability of the school authority to provide adequate facilities such as seats, electricity etc., hinder learning. A situation whereby six cluster on a seat meant for three students is just unhealthy for smooth examination.
- The government: Our government would not be left out in the list of the beneficiaries of this The research work will help the government to see reasons why trained and qualified teachers should be recruited into our secondary schools, why seminars and workshops should be organized by the government for the teachers to enable update their knowledge.
- The society / parents: This study will in no small measure assist parents and the society at large in knowing what their children and wards do in school and thus, see ways of assisting them to learn and concentrate more on their studies and depend less on external studies help during examination. Most parents and guardians do not provide the basic materials needed by their wards. Many students in our secondary schools do not have textbooks, writing materials etc. It is a well known fact that lack of needed necessary educational materials, make learning difficult let alone examination preparation.
It is of great importance to note that at the completion of this research work various secondary schools, communities, towns, states and Nigeria in general will find the result of this research work to be beneficial to great extent. It would play an essential role in the standard of education and in the task of economic growth and development. The significance of this study is to reveal the depth into which examination malpractice has plunged in our secondary schools, most especially in Ughelli North Local Government Area, Delta State . It is also to discover the forms, causes, consequences and permanent cure or permanent solution to the problem.
Delimitation of Study
This study is on the causes and effects of examination malpractice on the academic performance of secondary school students. It was conducted in Ughelli North local Government Area, Delta State .
The following research questions served as guides to the study:
- What are the factors that bring about examination malpractices?
- What are the effects of examination malpractice on the performance of secondary schools students?
- What arte the control measure towards bringing about a lasting solution to examination malpractices?
This Project is is available for the below list of Nigerian State capitals.
Abia Umuahia, Adamawa Yola, Akwa Ibom Uyo, Anambra Awka, Bauchi Bauchi, Bayelsa Yenagoa, Benue Makurdi, Borno Maiduguri, Cross River Calabar, Delta Asaba, Ebonyi Abakaliki, Edo Benin. Ekiti Ado Ekiti, Enugu Enugu, Gombe Gombe, Imo Owerri, Jigawa Dutse, Kaduna Kaduna, Kano Kano, Katsina Katsina, Kebbi Birnin Kebbi, Kogi Lokoja, Kwara Ilorin, Lagos Ikeja, Nasarawa Lafia, Niger Minna, Ogun Abeokuta, Ondo Akure, Osun Oshogbo, Oyo Ibadan, Plateau Jos, Rivers Port Harcourt, Sokoto Sokoto, Taraba Jalingo, Yobe Damaturu, Zamfara Gusau, FCT Abuja.
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