CAUSES OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICES AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN IKERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI-STATE

CHAPTER ONE

1.0              INTRODUCTION

1.1              BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Examinations in Nigeria schools dated back to the advent of formal education in the country in the 1810s and it was patterned after the British  system. As such the 1987 ordinance made provision for Examinations in schools that have attained the requisite percentage of proficiency.

Towards this end, all secondary schools in the country are expected to teach their subject to meet the requirements of examination bodies for the senior secondary school certificate organized by the West African Examination Council and the National Examination Commission Idohosa (2010).

Adeyemi (2010) define Examination malpractice as all illegal means that students use to pass examinations. Examination malpractice has become a plague in the Nigeria educational system.

Onyechere (2004) noted that it is almost a routine for students to cheat in examinations. Efforts have been made by government and the education authorities to stems its occurrence. Government has gone to the  extent of issuing Act 33 of 1999 referred to as examination malpractices and miscellaneous offences, act to check the malaise.

In Ekiti state Nigeria, examinations are either internal or public. Internal examinations are the examinations set by teachers in the form of class tests and end of term examinations. Public examinations on the other hand are examinations that are conducted in the public interest by recognized examinations bodies that were not involved in organizing, instruction or preparing students for the examinations. Notwithstanding, the importance of examinations in the educational system of the state, the instances of malpractices during examinations have been identified. These malpractices include misrepresentation of identity or  impersonation, cheating, theft of other students work, tampering with results and showing disregard to academic regulations. These vices have been regarded as academic misbehavior capable of truncating an educational system. They have also been regarded by researchers as dishonesty in examinations perpetrated by a person or a group of persons.

Common observation in the state show that examination malpractices occur in both public and private secondary schools, although some researchers argued that examination malpractices occur at a high rate in private schools. None of this researcher has been able to identify  whether or not examination malpractices was at a higher rate in public schools than in private schools. The argument therefore is, are Public secondary schools more involved in examination malpractices than Private schools in the state? in the past two decades, common observation in the school system showed that public schools were engaged in examination malpractices at a high rate while private schools.

These days, it is common to find students who failed the senior secondary certificate examination in public schools going to retake the examination in private schools and at the same time passing the examination with, credits and distinctions in such schools. It seems that the need to have good results in public examinations and advertise their schools to prospective students in the wake of money making appears to have led many private schools to be involved in examination malpractices.  Divergent views have also been made about the rate of examination malpractices in urban and rural secondary schools in the country. Some researchers were of opinion that examination malpractices were high in urban schools; other researches were common to feature of rural schools. They argued that it is common to find students who failed the senior secondary certificate examinations in urban school going to a remote rural school to retake the examinations. At the end, such  candidates tend to obtain good results with credits and distinctions in the rural schools. Some of the reasons given for this include the lack of effective supervision and monitoring of public examinations in rural schools. Hence, students seem to be left to massive cheating in such examinations.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

From the background of this study, it can be seen that examination play prominent roles in our education system as well as the society in which we live.

However, honest examinations are rare nowadays malpractices in examinations have been reputed since the early 1970s and each year, students adopt new methods of cheating clever and vigilant invigilator.

 

1.3     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following questions are raised in the study:

(1)   What are the reasons for students cheat in examinations?

(2)    What is the nature of examination malpractices among secondary school students in Ekiti state?

(3)   What  are  the  methods  used  by the  students  to  cheat  during examinations?

(4)   To what  extent  are the  society,  teacher,  parents  and  students involved in the malpractices?

(5)   What are the effects of examination malpractices on students, school and society?

 

1.4     PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study is to examine examination malpractices among secondary school students in Ikere Local Government area of Ekiti state.

This study will have specifically find out:

(a) Reasons why students cheat at examination

(b) The extent of methods students used in cheating at examination

(c)   The extent of the involvement of teachers, parents and the students in these malpractices

(d)   The nature of the examination malpractices in Ekiti state Ikere local government as a case study of students, school and society

(e)   The effect if examination malpractices on students school  and society.

 

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Considering hoe rampant examination malpractices occur in our institutions of learning in this country, it will be a worthwhile effort making the people aware of the importance of this study. So that the policy makers can device appropriate method of combating examination malpractices which the effects is making certificate obtained by some students at the end of examinations worthless. This study could also assists the parents, school and the examination bodies to put an end into examination malpractices in our secondary schools.

 

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study based on four schools from Ikere Ekiti Local Government area of Ekiti State. The schools are;

(1) Amoye Grammar School, Ikere-Ekiti

(2) Ajolagun High School, Ikere-Ekiti

(3)Eleyo High School, Ikere-Ekiti

(4) Comprehensive High School, Ikere-Ekiti

Questionnaire will be administered to students during the school hours. The administration will be done totally by the researcher and no member of staff of the school will be around so as to give the students freedom. The researcher will also ask students relevant question after the administrations.

 

1.7     DATA ANALYSIS

The use of questionnaire will be adopted in finding some facts about the problem.

 

1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS

Examination: examination in the context of the study is the evaluation device to measure the students’ academic attainment.

Examination Malpractice: refers to the adoption of series of unconventional or illegal methods before during and after examinations usually for personal advantage aimed at passing the exams.

This Project is is available for the below list of Nigerian State capitals.
Abia Umuahia, Adamawa Yola, Akwa Ibom Uyo, Anambra Awka, Bauchi Bauchi, Bayelsa Yenagoa, Benue Makurdi, Borno Maiduguri, Cross River Calabar, Delta Asaba, Ebonyi Abakaliki, Edo Benin. Ekiti Ado Ekiti, Enugu Enugu, Gombe Gombe, Imo Owerri, Jigawa Dutse, Kaduna Kaduna, Kano Kano, Katsina Katsina, Kebbi Birnin Kebbi, Kogi Lokoja, Kwara Ilorin, Lagos Ikeja, Nasarawa Lafia, Niger Minna, Ogun Abeokuta, Ondo Akure, Osun Oshogbo, Oyo Ibadan, Plateau Jos, Rivers Port Harcourt, Sokoto Sokoto, Taraba Jalingo, Yobe Damaturu, Zamfara Gusau, FCT Abuja.

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