Causes of indiscipline among public secondary school students

Causes of indiscipline among public secondary school students



  Background to the Study

Most schools in the past were voluntary agency schools. As at then, there was high degree of discipline in school.

There was harmony as principals, teachers and students demonstrated awareness of their responsibilities in the school. Moreso, parents and teachers shared the same view of students’ desirable behaviours. The quality of school system as regards to discipline was very high up till the end of Nigerian civil war in January 1970.

After the civil war, things began to change. All forms of indiscipline were manifested by the students. Indiscipline is negative form of discipline, Zubaidia (2009) citing Dare, Hashim, Sweinan and Ofie (2004) defined discipline in schools as respect for school laws and regulations and the maintenance of an established standard of behaviour and implies self-control, restraint, respect for oneself and others. A behaviour that contradicts the above becomes indiscipline. According to Tunor (2002), if students cultivate the habit of discipline in schools, there will be a smooth running in the school system but reverse will be the case if students are not discipline. Zubaida (2009) identifies various forms of indiscipline among the secondary school students such as truancy, lateness to school, cultism, drug abuse, insulting/assaulting, stealing, rioting, and many other antisocial vices. According to Zubaida (2009) and Eyinade (1999), a number of these acts of indiscipline were directed against constituted authorities and established rules. An example of this is refusal to wear the right

school uniform and going out of bounds without permission. The respect which teachers command among students had been seriously worn-off. And some teachers have not done much to help the situation by their actions. This problem has turned to a national issue.

Our leaders in the past have tried to remedy this situation but the problem proved not to be solved. One of the cardinal objectives of Education as spelt out in the National Policy on Education (2004) revised, is to  inculcate right type of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and Nigerian society. Onyije and Ojedapo (2010) identify some factors that cause indiscipline among students such as government nonchalant attitudes to education, parental factors and teachers’ attitude.

Therefore there is need to get at the root causes of indiscipline amongst the secondary school students with a view to finding a solution. In this light the researchers concern is to find out factors responsible for indiscipline among secondary school students. With a view to provide solutions in order to make our educational system what it ought to be.

The problem of indiscipline seems to be more apparently among secondary school students. indiscipline among them has attracted serious attention of scholars and administrators attributed indiscipline among secondary school to their state of development. they view that when students notice certain biological change signaling maturity in the course of their growth and development, they tend to misbehave by faulting school rules and regulations. (Makhargee; 2010).

The role of indiscipline on the academic performance among secondary school students can never be overemphasized. this appears to pose a great threat to the moral and academic performance can be likened to the achievements of learning experience students have been exposed to in the classroom or school environment.

Discipline in most secondary schools is now passing through an extended eclipse.

The problem of indiscipline permeates all facts of our life. it has, infact brought us down to the knees. it is better pictured by a cartoonist showing a agile horse read to move but bugged and tied down by an ugly looking archer who is named “indiscipline”.

Indiscipline is found everywhere. therefore, students do no longer believe in handwork as the only honorable path to success.   Slang is connoting examination malpractices like “chokes” exhibit; eru; expo and the likes are common during examination times and they are expressed in such free but shameful manner that one mean anything children of the highly and low, big and small, powerful and the downtrodden are involved in varying degrees. Thus, this study is set to examine the imperative of indiscipline, its causes, types and solutions as it affect secondary school students in relation to their academi8c performance.

Statement of the problem

The problem of indiscipline in schools has persisted over the years. These acts have either been carried out individually by the students or as a group which result to rioting or revolts. There is no doubt that students indiscipline generally militates against effective teaching and learning and production of useful acceptable members of the society. It is therefore, observed that some parents appear to have denied their parental roles or responsibilities towards their children. If the teachers are frustrated and lack motivation in themselves, they are not likely to motivate other to learn or occupy their time in productive education. The Government contributes to indiscipline by not providing adequate facilities/equipment in the school. Community/Society influence contributes to indiscipline among secondary school students due to economic recession. Peer-group influence contributes to indiscipline among students in the form of uncomfortable environment where the students are scared of their parents.

Purpose of the study.

The main purpose of this research study is to investigate the causes of indiscipline among public schonary school students in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State

The main purpose of this research study is to;

Ø     Examine sufficient5ly the effect of indiscipline in our secondary schools.

Ø     Examine critically its effect on academic performance of students at the secondary school level.

Ø     Examine the causes and types of i8ndiscipline in the general sense of it.

Ø     Carryout educational researches and findings on discipilne and its roles on academic performance.

Ø     Lastly, proffer remedy and relevant recommendations in curbing indiscipline and its effect in academic performance.

Research questions.

In this study, the research will find answers to the following questions:

1)     What are the causes of indiscipline in our secondary schools?

2)     What bare the problems caused by indiscipline among secondary school students?

3)     How does indiscipline affect the academic performance o9f the students?

4)     How can we curb these problems poised by indiscipline in our secondary schools

5)     Who is to blame for the students indiscipline- parents, teachers, guidance, students or the environment?

Significance of the study.

The importance and relevance of this study cannot be overstressed; it make vivid to the school management, academic performance and behavior of the students at large. Discipline is the  most essential quality of life, it is infact the greatest law of nature. it is very necessary in all schools, colleges and homes. since discipline means a training that teaches self control. obedience, cooperation and punctuality. This study will expose the effectiveness and efficiency of discipline among students and the school system. it reveals the effect of discipline on academic performance likewise, it goes a long way to reveal the causes, effect of indiscipline in our secondary schools with Ado Ekiti local Government Area as the case study.

Determination of the study.

For the purpose of this study, the research would not go beyond its subject matter which s indiscipline among its subject matter which is indiscipline among secondary school students effect on academic performance. this study focuses on the added advantages accrued to the school, and the passive effect on academic performance and moral uprightness of the students, if indiscipline of the student could be adequately and effectively curbed to the barest minimum among secondary school student5s using a selected number of schools in Ado Ekiti Local Government Area.

Definition of terms.

For the purpose of this study, it remains vital and essential to defi8ne some key concepts which are basic for the proper understanding of the research work.

  1. a) Discipline: this simply means a mode of life in conformity with rules and subjection to control. it is also the training often used as a system of punishment, aimed at producing obedience to rules, self control e.t.c.
  2. b) Indiscipline: this can simply be seen as mode of life not in conformity with rules and non-subjection to control. By extension, it connotes the violations of school rules and regulation capable of obstructing the orderly, functioning of the school system.
  3. c) Academic performance: this on its own hand simply means the achievements of learning experience students have been exposed to in the classroom .
  4. d) Moral performance: it refers to the adherence to moral codes of the school, conformity of students to stated rules and regulations.
  5. e) Moral standard: this is the level of quality in human behaviour which is generally acceptable by the school system and society at large.



This chapter deals with review of some related literature on the study of indiscipline among secondary school students and the effect on academic performance in Ado-Local government area of Ekiti state.

The review will be discussed under the following sub-heading:

1)    Concept of indiscipline

2)    Different types of indiscipline

3)    Causes of indiscipline

4)    Effects of indiscipline

5)    How can indiscipline be curbed, managed or control e.t.c

6)    Academic Performance   (a) under a well discipline situations (b)under indiscipline situations.

7)    Summary of Literature Review.

Conceptual framework

This very topic demands our serious consideration and resolution because of its visible impediment to national growth and development, besides, it is a topic of all times.

Discipline can be defined as training to act in accordance to systematic and regular action; drill their wildness, lose and quitting nature’s part.

To accustom to regular and systematic action; to bring under control so as to act systematically; to train, to act together under orders, to teach subordination to; to form a habit of obedience.

According to I.A Ajayi and J.B Ayodele (2012), the success of the school system depends on the level of discipline of  staff and students. A school characterized by high level of indiscipline will find it difficult to achieve its aims and objectives.

It is the responsibility of the school head to maintain discipline in the school. However, he cannot do this alone, he has to involve the assistance head, heads of departments, members of staff, prefects and the students.

It will be sensical to understand what we mean by discipline before we look into the topic of discussion “indiscipline”.

According to Gnagey (2009), discipline include all techniques a teacher uses to increase the proportion of school appropriate behaviours. In this definition, the emphasis is on enforcement of appropriate behaviours in the school system.

Adesina2008), defines discipline as the readiness or ability to respect authority and observe conventional or established laws of the society or of any organization.

Abubakar (2007) also defines discipline as the ability and willingness to do what one ought to do without external control or prompting. These definitions shoe that discipline means appropriate behaviours in an organization or the society as well as the means of enforcing such behaviours.

Indiscipline on its own hand, simply means lack of discipline.  It is an impediment to the organisation’s goal and objective of an organization or a society. According to Adeyemo (2001), indiscipline can simply be seen as mode of  life not in conformity with rules and non-subjection to control. By extension, the term connotes the violations of schools rules and regulations capable of obstructing the smooth and orderly functioning of the school system.

Tuluhi and Bello(2009) assert that indiscipline is the breaking of rules and regulation of institutions. Individuals willingly or unwillingly violate laid down rules of an institutions, which hampers the smooth running of institutions in most cases do affect students more than any other thing because they are made by the school authorities in order to guide and protect the students while in school. All behaviours contrary to the norms and values of an organization or a society constitute indiscipline. In the school system, drug abuse, examination malpractices, rioting, disobedience, truancy, cultism, stealing, fighting and so on constitute indiscipline.

The problem of indiscipline is more apparent among them has attracted serious attention of scholars and administrators attributed indiscipline among secondary school students to their state of development. They opine that when students notice certain biological changes signaling maturity in the course of their growth. They tend to misbehave by faulting school rules and regulations.


Different type of Indiscipline.

Several form of indiscipline acts pervade through every corner of the secondary schools among the students. Some occurred within the classroom, some within the school premises, while some others are carried out outside the school premises.

Lewis(1991) as quoted by Morongwal(2010:11) observed that three types of misbehavior which are regarded as discipline problems for the educator in the classroom include: misbehaviors that inhibit the learner’s own learning misbehaviors by one learner which is destructive to the learning of another and misbehaviors which are disrespectful, defiant or abusive to the educator. He added that, these misbehaviours can be committed intentionally or unintentionally. He further stated in a clear term some of these behaviours which he believes can impact negatively on the morale of the student himself and mentioned them as follows;

–         A learner consistently comes to class late and disrupts the flow of the class.

–         He/she talks while the teacher is addressing the class.

–         He/she writes graffiti on school property;

–         Another one continuously calls out in class.

–         One is not listening and asks questions that have already been answered.

–         Another one defies the teacher and refuses to follow instructions; and

–         Another one moves around in the class to the point of becoming a distraction.

Also, on the part of Rosen(1997:51-52) he identifies ten other types of indiscipline acts among the students and which may lead to suspension as a way of punishing any learner who perpetrate such acts, among these are:

–         Defiance to school authority;

–         Class destruction;

–         Truancy;

–         Fighting;

This Project is is available for the below list of Nigerian State capitals.
Abia Umuahia, Adamawa Yola, Akwa Ibom Uyo, Anambra Awka, Bauchi Bauchi, Bayelsa Yenagoa, Benue Makurdi, Borno Maiduguri, Cross River Calabar, Delta Asaba, Ebonyi Abakaliki, Edo Benin. Ekiti Ado Ekiti, Enugu Enugu, Gombe Gombe, Imo Owerri, Jigawa Dutse, Kaduna Kaduna, Kano Kano, Katsina Katsina, Kebbi Birnin Kebbi, Kogi Lokoja, Kwara Ilorin, Lagos Ikeja, Nasarawa Lafia, Niger Minna, Ogun Abeokuta, Ondo Akure, Osun Oshogbo, Oyo Ibadan, Plateau Jos, Rivers Port Harcourt, Sokoto Sokoto, Taraba Jalingo, Yobe Damaturu, Zamfara Gusau, FCT Abuja.



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