CONSEQUENCES OF PREMARITAL PREGNANCY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
TABLE OF CONTENT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
CHAPTER I – INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
CHAPTER II – REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Review of Related Empirical Studies
Rate of Premarital Pregnancy
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Summary of Review of Literature
CHAPTER III – METHODOLOGY
Area of the study
Population of the study
Sample and sampling techniques
Instruments for data collection
Validation of the instrument
Reliability of the instrument
Administration of the instrument
Data analysis techniques
CHAPTER IV – PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
Analysis of Research Hypothesis
Test of research hypothesis 1
Test of research hypothesis 2
Test of research hypothesis 3
Test of research hypothesis 4
Test of research hypothesis 5
CHAPTER V – DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, SUMMARY,
Discussion of results
Summary of the study
Implication of the findings
Limitations of the study
Suggestions for further studies
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 2.1: Conceptual framework on physical activities
Fig. 2.2 Gerald Caplan’s Crisis Theory
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Data on Level of Education
Table II: Data on Age of Respondents
Table III: Data on Religion of Respondents
Table IV: Rate of Premarital Pregnancy
Table V: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Table VI: Maternal Mortality
Table VII: Poverty Table VIII: Education Disruption
The purpose of this study was to find out the consequences of Premarital Pregnancy among secondary school students in Gwandwalada area council of FCT Abuja. A total of three hundred respondents were used for the study. A questionnaire was designed for the study and data were analyzed using chi –square. The result showed that Premarital Pregnancy will lead to maternal mortality among the teenagers. The result also showed that Premarital Pregnancy also leads to sexually transmitted infections. For the teenagers and their baby, the result also showed that Premarital Pregnancy will lead to education disruption of the pregnant teenager. The result also showed that Premarital Pregnancy leads to poverty for the teenager. Recommendation were made, it was recommended that federal government in collaboration with the community and the school should determine interventions to reduce Premarital Pregnancy in addition to being effective, the proposed interventions to reduce Premarital Pregnancy should be culturally acceptable, low cost, multispectral and sustainable.
Background to the study
To become a parent, at any given age have the capacity of generating a life – altering experience. Irrespective of race, education and socio-economic status motherhood and fatherhood both places high demands on one’s life that were not
there before the birth of a child. Indeed, becoming a parent comes with several responsibilities, and when people of school ages (students) become parents, the new responsibilities can be very over-helming and daunting. And for teenage parents that lack the support of their own parent, this experience can be more challenging and horrifying as they crave and seek support in adult –oriented systems in which even the older parents may find rather difficult to cope.
Teenage parents or students with children, as they are usually referred to in some literature, are parents that fall within the age bracket of thirteen (13) and nineteen (19). More often, these students drop out of school due mostly to pressures they experience, which include stigmatization that is limited with early parenting; isolation from their peers; and lack of the necessary support from their family, friends, schools, social service agencies and other organizations. These factors emerge because of the cultural and normative values that Premarital Pregnancy tends to breach. According to the latest statistics, Nigeria has the highest teenage birth rate in Africa (Channels Television, 15th July, 2013).
Furthermore, there are several other socio-economic factors that determine the rate of premarital pregnancies in different countries of the world. In Nigeria and other developing countries, poverty, illiteracy and lack of sex and sexuality education tend to be glaring indicators that determine the rate of teenage pregnancies.
Not only those Premarital Pregnancy have impact on young women, it also impact the economy, Teenagers who get pregnant in high school are at disadvantage when it comes not only to providing for themselves but for their children, women aged 18-35 years who have their first child at 17 years or younger earn #3,350 less than women who have their first child at 20 or 21 years ( Chapman, 2006) one explanation of why teenage mothers earn less is that they have lower levels of educational achievements and occupations that do not require high levels of educational are usually lower wage positions in 2004, only 40% of teenage mothers graduated from high school compared to about 75% of women who had their first child at 20-21 years (Chapman, 2006), the same trend can be seen in years of years of higher education completed. In 2004, women who had their birth at 20 over 21 years of college (21%) compared to women who had their first birth at 17 years or younger (5%) or 18-19 years (10%) (Chapman, 2006). These findings highlight the negative impact Premarital Pregnancy can have on the pursuit of education. The cost of society is another reason Premarital Pregnancy is a concern tax payers on the federal, state and local levels pay for the teenage mothers and their children through welfare, the national campaign to prevent Premarital Pregnancy estimated that teenage pregnancies cost taxpayers #9.1 billion in 2004 (Chapman, 2006). The cost of tax a taxpayer pays is based on the money that could be saved due to avoiding negative outcome of Premarital Pregnancy . Government programme that provide public health care like Medicaid, Medicare (For disabled children), state children health insurance program (SCHIP) and civilian health and medical programme of the informed services (CHAMPUS) , renamed (TRICARE) are utilized primarily by the children of teenage mothers is provided through these sources, compared to 50% for children of mothers who were 20-21 years at the time of their first birth (Chapman, 2006). Reducing Premarital Pregnancy rate could be applied to other government programme there is on-going debate concerning the best way to decrease the rate of Premarital Pregnancy . Research has as shown that sex education programs have an impact on the sexual behaviour of teenagers (Kalil, 2007). Widespread sex education programmes that are evidence based on effective way to reduce Premarital Pregnancy rates (Barnette, 2008).
Pregnancy at whatever stage in life can be a life changing experience that cuts across boundaries of race, educational attainment and socio-economic status (Kost et al., 2010). Motherhood places demands on one’s life which were hitherto non-existent prior to the birth of the woman. When a girl that should be in school becomes pregnant, her entire life could be completely altered as her hopes and aspirations could be shattered.
Teenage parents are parents between the ages of 13 and 19 years (Kost et al., 2010). Maynard (1997), believe that Premarital Pregnancy is a delinquent behavior resulting from stress, dislike, malice, boredom and unhappiness experienced by a teenage girl within her home environment. Other predisposing factors include alcoholism, drug addiction, sexual promiscuity, social and health problems among adolescents and sexual abuses resulting to unwanted sex and pregnancy (Gaby, 2012). Dilworth (2002) observed a relationship between risk behaviours (drinking, smoking and drugs) and likelihood of becoming pregnant among teenagers, while Singh and Daroch (2000) singled out poverty as both the causes and consequences of teen pregnancy and child bearing.
Kinby (2001) believes that victims of Premarital Pregnancy lacked information or probably were not adequately educated on safe-sex either by their parents, schools or development agencies that could have enabled them deal with friends who lure them into sex prematurely. Stressing that, children of single parents are more vulnerable to Premarital Pregnancy . Again exposure to most sexual content on television, sexuality in the media and pornographic and sex chart rooms by teenagers, could most likely tune them to engage in sexual activities (L’Engle et al., 2006; Park, 2008). Acceptance of gift for sex and some adult deliberately taking advantage of poor teenagers, encouraging them into having sex were also noted as factors responsible for Premarital Pregnancy (UN, 2001).
The effect of Premarital Pregnancy not only on the teenage-mother, but also her child could be devastating. Hofforth et al. (2001) observed that most teenage mothers could not continue with their education. The observation confirms the fear expressed by Mollborn (2007) that if the teenage-mother eventually gets married, she becomes the primary care-taker and her chances of furthering her education decreases drastically. Day (2009) noted that the consequence extends to the children. According to them teenage mothers face hardships, which extends beyond birth and have higher risks which usually plagued by intellectual language and socio-emotional delays, resulting to their education not doing well in relation to child development and school readiness. Terry-Humen et al. (2005) noted problems in cognition, language communication and inter-personal skills among children of teenage mothers compared to those of older mothers. Studies by Hoffman (2006) and Haveman et al. (1997) show that less than 2% of young teen mothers of less than 18 years attain college degree before attaining 30 years of age and about 50% of them repeat a grade with lower performance on standardized tests. Premarital Pregnancy is phenomenal and cuts across the globe. It is a socio-psychological problem found in both developed and developing societies. In Texas, United States of America 62 out of every 1000 births, were by teenage girls. However, Maynard (1997) and Wilson (1996) observed disproportionate concentration of teen parents in poor communities, characterized by inferior housing, high crime, poor schools and inadequate health care services
Statement of the problem.
The rate of Pre-marital Pregnancy in Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT Abuja is very high. Majority of the secondary school girls were sexually active which prone them to be at high risk of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STD). However, most of them have developed the attitude of not been regular in school, which could result in poor performance within the targeted group. Further, some of these teenagers engaged in casual sex as if they are commercial sex workers, due to their socio-economic disadvantages and they were found with many social vices like drug abuse, smoking and raping, some even developed the risk of physical problem which make them to experience obstetric difficulties when compared with adult mothers. However, students stand the risk of delivering premature babies or giving birth to children with low birth weight and respiratory distress which many later result in psychological problems or untimely death.
Purpose of the study
The main purpose of the study is to investigate the consequences of Pre-marital Pregnancy among secondary schools students in Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT Abuja. Specifically this study intends:
- To identify the rate of Pre-marital Pregnancy in Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT Abuja.
- To find out if Pre-marital Pregnancy lead to sexually transmitted infections (STI) among secondary school students in Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT Abuja?
- To identify how Pre-marital Pregnancy will lead to maternal mortality among secondary school students in Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT Abuja.
- To find out how Pre-marital Pregnancy will lead to poverty among secondary school students in Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT Abuja.
- To find out how Pre-marital Pregnancy will lead to education disruption in Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT Abuja.
Significance of the study.
This research work will be of importance to the school heads administrations as to investigate the cause attitude toward peer group and how parents, guardian and government should join hands together to keep their children away from premarital sex which leads to Pre-marital Pregnancy.
- To enable students shows negative attitudes towards premarital and unprotected sex.
- To provide detail description of the levels and patterns and trends of teenage pregnancies.
- To find out the reasons behind teenagers having sex.
- To assist government, parents and guardian to join hands to keep the society and students away from unprotected sex.
Scope of the study.
The study covers all secondary school students within Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT Abuja on the consequences of Pre-marital Pregnancy among them. The research will involve a research assistant who will be secondary school teacher. The research will involve the independent variables of Pre-marital Pregnancy and dependent variables of the consequences.
The Analysis of data will be done using descriptive statistics of frequency count, mean, median and mode for demographic data and Chi-square (x2) will be used for the section B.
In an attempt to carry out the study, answers will be provided to the following research questions:
- Is there high rate of Pre-marital Pregnancy in Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT Abuja?
- Will Pre-marital Pregnancy lead to sexually transmitted infections (STI) among secondary school students in Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT Abuja?
- Does Pre-marital Pregnancy lead to maternal mortality among secondary school students in Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT Abuja?
- Will Pre-marital Pregnancy lead to poverty among secondary school students in Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT Abuja?
- Does Pre-marital Pregnancy leads to education disruption among secondary school students in Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT Abuja?
The following hypotheses are put forward for the purpose of this study:
- There will be no significant differences in the rate of Pre-marital Pregnancy among secondary school students in Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT Abuja.
- Pre-marital Pregnancy will not significantly cause sexually Transmitted Infection among secondary school students in Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT Abuja.
- Pre-marital Pregnancy will not significantly cause maternal mortality among secondary school students in Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT Abuja.
- Pre-marital Pregnancy will not significantly cause poverty among secondary school students in Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT Abuja.
- Pre-marital Pregnancy will not significantly cause educational disruption among secondary school students in Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT Abuja.
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