DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF BIRTH RATE REGISTRATION SYSTEM USING GENERAL HOSPITAL
This research work focused on electronic birth rate registration system using General Hospital, as a case study. Birth registration is very important for every nation as it is one of the prime aspects of knowing the citizens of a country. This study was necessary because many hospitals do not have an automated system to keep record of child birth. The manual registration system does not aid easy updating and finding of birth registration information. To solve this problem, a database system has been developed to aid registration, updating and monitoring of births by querying the database by date of birth. The programming languages used to implement the system are HTML and Visual Basic 6.0.
- Background to the study
A Birth registration is the official recording of a child’s birth through an administrative process of the country, coordinated by a particular branch of government. It is a permanent and official record of the existence of a person
before the law. A birth notification is the notice of the occurrence of a birth, during which midwives or others report to civil registrars, who in turn register the birth. A birth certificate is a personal document issued to an individual by the state to prove birth registration. The notification of a birth, registration and the issuing of a birth certificate are three distinct but related steps. Some birth registration systems automatically include issuing of a birth certificate, while others require a separate application Ideally, birth registrations are part of an effective civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) system that acknowledges the existence of the person before the law, establishes the newborn’s family ties and tracks the major events of the individual’s life. Civil registration is the
continuous, permanent, compulsory and universal recording of the occurrence and characteristics of vital events, pertaining to the population as provided through decree or regulation in accordance with the legal requirements of a
country. Civil registration is carried out primarily for the purpose of establishing legal documents provided by law.
These records are also a main source of vital statistics. Complete coverage, accuracy and timeliness of civil registration are essential for quality vital statistics. Vital events that are typically recorded include live birth, death, fetal death, marriage, divorce, adoption and recognition/legitimization. The resulting repository or database is called the civil register or civil registry. A fully
functional CRVS system should be based on fundamental principles to ensure it is universal, permanent and continuous and that it preserves the confidentiality of personal information. It should collect, transmit and store information effectively and guarantee data quality and integrity. Such a system fulfils human rights as well as supporting the normal functioning of society UNICEF (2002 )
If a child is not registered at birth, he or she will not have a birth certificate, and be unable to legally prove his or her name or the relationship to his or her parents. Individuals acquire important benefits from the legal status that a certification ensures. Registration entitles a child to their rights and bestows the responsibility for that child,
throughout his or her life, on the state in which they are born. In many countries, proof of identity is essential to gaining access to basic services and to exercising their fundamental rights. Without a birth certificate a child may
not be able to sit for school exams, receive free health care or claim rights to inheritance or legal protection in courts of law. As an adult without a birth certificate, a person may not have the right to marry, vote, be employed in the formal sector, acquire a passport to travel outside their country of birth, or even register their own children´s births Parents of newborns in Nigeria can now get convenient bundled services from civil services with hospitals and vaccination sides. They can use the Newborn Registration Service to complete the child’s Birth Registration and apply for their child’s National Number (NN). They also have the option to apply for their child’s Birth Certificate. With this integrated application, they can avoid going to different levels of government and
entering the same information over and over again on separate application forms.
Registering a child’s birth is a critical first step towards safeguarding lifelong protection. Promoting children’s right to birth registration falls clearly within UNICEF’s mandate. There has been some progress, albeit small in raising birth registration levels. Between 2000 and 2010 global birth registration levels rose only slightly, from 58 per cent to 65 percent. Certain trends in the international environment provide opportunities for rethinking approaches to birth registration. Birth registration is the continuous, permanent and universal recording, within the civil registry, of the occurrence and characteristics of births in accordance with the legal requirements of a country. Birth registration is the official recording of a child’s birth by the State. It is a permanent and official record of a child’s existence. Birth registration is part of an effective civil registration system that acknowledges the person’s existence before the law, establishes family ties and tracks the major events of an individual’s life, from live birth to marriage and death (UNNICEF, 2013).
Although birth registration is almost complete in all developed countries, the lack of progress on civil registration in many developing countries means that global inequalities in birth registration are now extreme. The births of approximately 230 million children under the age of 5 have not been registered. Of these, around 85 million are in sub-Saharan Africa, 135 million in Asia (east and south Asia and the Pacific) and the remainder in the rest of the world. But does this matter in their lives? Birth registration may signify the beginning of the legal contract between the individual and the State known as citizenship. Birth registration serves as important proof of the place of birth and parentage, and while birth registration does not in itself confer citizenship upon the child, it is often essential for its acquisition based on each country’s laws. Birth registration may also be vital for confirmation of nationality6 following tumultuous events such as armed conflict and situations of state succession. The registration of births and acquisition of citizenship are distinct processes, however birth registration serves as important proof of the facts that form the basis for conferral of citizenship at birth. More specifically it establishes a legal record of where the child was born and who his or her parents are and thus whether the child can acquire citizenship on the basis of place of birth (jus soli) or descent (jus sanguinis). Children who are not registered are excluded from the benefits of citizenship in ways that vary between countries. A birth certificate may be required to obtain access to basic services such as health and education, and it can also help to protect children from situations of exploitation and violence, such as child marriage and child labour, and achieve convictions against those who have abused a child (UNNICEF, 2013).
In adulthood, birth certificates may be needed for many purposes: to obtain social security or a job in the formal sector; to buy or prove the right to inherit property; to obtain identity cards; to vote; and to obtain a passport. The lack of a birth certificate can have a serious, cumulative, negative effect on people’s life opportunities. As well as providing the individual with legal proof of identity, birth registration also plays a crucial role in the generation of vital statistics.8 Birth registration is part of national civil registration systems that also record marriages and deaths. Civil registration provides the demographic data that are needed by governments to track the size, differentials and trends of their populations. When complete and accurate, civil registration facilitates democratic governance. It enables governments to develop policies and plans for basic service delivery and social and economic development that respond to the needs of different sectors of their populations. Through these mechanisms, civil registration facilitates the access of both children and adults to protection under the law, to services and entitlements and to social and economic opportunities, and can improve their ability to exercise their civil rights (UNNICEF, 2013).
Due to the benefits that accrue from using the computer system, it can be applied to solve numerous problems. Birth rate monitoring cannot be manually achieved. An automated software system is needed to enable instant monitoring of birth rate. This is only possible when there is a web based or online system to register births. As the births are being registered, a bar chart can be used to determine the rate of birth in specific regions. To achieve this, computer programmers need to develop a software system that runs online. The benefit of the system is that it will enable those in charge of taking statistics of birth rate to get needed information easily and with minimal stress.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Every day newborns babies delivered everywhere in the world, especially in Nigeria, we need to follow number of sequenced steps to register that newborn baby, from providing the hospital with certain information and all required governmental documents about both parents. Then a paper needed to complete the registration process in the civil services side, family notebook, passports, document of residence …etc. all needed to complete the newborn baby registration process.Also, after that each baby will have his own vaccination card. To follow all needed vaccinations required for that baby. And those vaccinations maybe changed according to what required day after day. And note that if mother didn’t bring her baby card with him to take one of the vaccinations the side will refuse to give him until the card showed up. Many times parent went back home back home to got it and return to the vaccination side. Inside the civil services itself, sequence of steps required and needed to be established in order to complete the registration process, and parents may stand in rows in order to finish their work. What about managing all of these steps through the net? Isn’t it much easier? For both parents and civil services employee? Isn’t it very useful to register the baby through the net? And follow all these steps from everywhere?
The manual registration process has many drawbacks: It is subject to delays in transferring data. ,Subject to errors. – Duplications and inconsistencies arose. The electronic system was therefore proposed.
The following problems were identified in the existing system:
The manual system of registering birth records does not promote effectiveness. It is time consuming to search and retrieve birth registration information, Accumulation of birth registration paper files, With the manual system it is difficult to query birth registration records based on defined criteria like place of birth, mothers’ name, etc
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of the study is to design and implement electronic birth registration record system with the following objectives:
- To develop a system that can be easily used to register births.
- To develop a system that can be utilized to monitor birth rates.
- To implement a system that can be used to obtain reports of birth rate
- To develop a system that will aid easy updating of birth registration records
1.4 Significance of the Study
The study is significant in the following ways:
- It will enable management of the hospital to properly maintain record of birth registration.
- It will facilitate the easy presentation of reports pertaining to birth monitoring
- The study will serve as a useful reference
1.5 Scope of the Study
This study covers design and implementation of a electronic birth registration system using General Hospital in Ikot Ekpene as a case study.
1.6 Limitations of the Study
In carrying out the research work, some challenges were faced that limited the study such as:
Time: The time given for the completion of the research work was too short hence the researcher had speed up the research work to meet up and this has an impact on the study.
Limited Materials: few materials were found pertaining to the research area and this limited the bulk of the literature review.
Finance: The high cost of textbooks, internet browsing and transportation to different libraries to gather materials stood as a constraint to the research work.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Online: Refers a system which is connected to or delivered from the internet.
Birth: The process of childbearing
Monitor: To detect and inform about the presence of something.
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