EFFECT OF CLASS SIZE ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN ECONOMICS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objective of the Study
Delimitation of the study
Significance of the study
Definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Concept of over crowding
Concept of class size
Concept of academic performance
Vygotsky’s theory of learning
Social learning theory
Piaget’s theory of (intellectual) Cognitive development
Ausubel’s Theory of meaningful learning
Summary of Literature
Population of the study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Validity of Instrument
Reliability of instrument
Procedure for data collection
Method of Data Analysis
Result and Discussion
Analysis of Research Question
Testing and Interpretation of hypothesis
Discussion of findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
This study investigated the effect of class size on students academic performance in Economics with special reference to Selected secondry school in Ekiti state. The study was a descriptive survey research design. The sample of the study comprise of sixty select students. The frequency count and percentages method were used to analyzed the research questions, while chi-square test was used to test the research hypothesis. From the study, It was discovered that large class have effect on students academic performance, also findings from the study revealed that overcrowded class room and over population of schools have effect on students academic performance. Findings from the study are of great significance for educational planners, policy makers and both federal and state governments. The study recommended that the secondary should take steps to appoint more teachers, also government should provide more class room to ensure quality of service delivering,
Background to the Study
As school population increases, class sizes also increase, the performances of students become an issue. Class size has become a phenomenon often mentioned in the educational literature as an influence on pupil’s feelings and achievement, on administration, quality and school budgets. In his words he noted, that class size is almost an administrative decision over which teachers have little or no control. Most researchers start from the assumption that size of the class would prove a significant determinant of the degree of success of students. In fact, with the exception of a few, many studies have reported that under ideal situation, class size in itself appears to be an important factor.
Class size refers to an educational tool that can be used to describe the average number of students per class in a school (Adeyemi, 2008). This varies from country to country. Taiwo (201 5), saw it as a tool that can be used to measure the performance of the education system. In relation to size, Stepaniuk (2009) reported that the rational utilization of classroom space depends upon class-size. This in turn would depend upon the area of the classroom. He argued that there are approved norms of class-size, 40 pupils per class for grades 1 to 8 and 35 pupils per class for the senior classes; while the standard allocation of class space per pupil is 1:25 square metres. In this regard, According to Taiwo (201 5), compared class-size in some countries and found that Turkey, Norway and Netherlands had class-sizes of 20 more; the UK, USA, Japan, Canada and Ireland had class-sizes of between 15 and 20 while France, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, Italy, Luxembourg and Belgium had sizes of below 15.
In Nigeria, however, Okoro (2005) reported that the class-size in secondary schools ranges between 35 or40 students. He argued that few pupils per class are uneconomical, as they do not make full use of space, teachers and teaching materials. Adeyemi (2008) too, reported that average class-size influences the cost of education while capital cost could be reduced by increasing the average class-size in schools while Nwadiani (2000) argued that the higher the class-size, the lower the cost of education. He contended however, that most classrooms are over-crowded spreading resources thinly and thereby affecting the quality of education. Ajayi (2000) supported the viewpoints and argued that in order to control rising capital cost of education, the average class-size could be increased. These points were also supported by Toth and Montagna (2002) who reported that the increase in enrollment in many institutions which has become major concerns of students could definitely lead to an increase in class size. Commeyras (2000) however, disagreed with these arguments and reported that effective teaching seems impracticable for teacher educators having large class sizes of 50, 75, 100 or more. In terms of outcomes, Schultz (1993) classified the outcomes of education into two categories from the economic point of view. These are consumption and investment. Cohn (1995) referred to the consumption aspect as that related to benefits derived by students. He regarded the investment component as including a variety of outputs related to the enhancement of an individual’s or society’s productive skills. Thus, Blaug (1993) argued that the extension of education tends to raise the earnings of those who benefited from it. In this regard, Simkins (2001) reported that output “represents the immediate results of the system’s activities.” According to him, “the main outputs in education are expressed in terms of learning, that is, changes in the knowledge, skills and attitudes of individuals as a result of their experiences within the educational system.” He argued that the educational system is a productive system in the very sense that it produces outputs especially various forms of learning. He expressed that the components of the system could be represented in a model viz:
Input Process Output. Explaining the model, he alleged that the various inputs are processed in the production of outputs. Examinations in Nigerian schools dated back to the advent of formal education. Since then examinations have occupied a central place in the Nigerian educational system .According to him, examination has been “the sole criterion of quality” in Nigeria and “once a higher percentage of the pupils pass their external examinations, the school is considered to be of a high quality.” The importance of examinations in Nigeria even extended beyond this point. This importance as entrenched in the Federal Government of Nigeria National Policy of Education was in the fact that all secondary schools should gear their programmes to meet the requirements of model, he alleged that the various inputs are processed examinations being conducted for the School Certificate. Toward this end, Fafunwa (1974) argued that “it is an educational truism that examinations control the curriculum and whoever controls a country’s examination system controls its education.”
The WAEC Ordinance emphasized the importance of standards in its examinations. According to the Ordinance, standards must be such that the certificates awarded on the basis of performance in the examinations shall not represent a lower standard of attainment when compared with equivalent certificates of other examining authorities. These examining authorities were the Cambridge and London Universities Examinations Boards for the WASC and GCE examinations respectively. Although the SSC examination has replaced the WASC and GCE examinations in Nigeria it still uses the GCE ‘O’ & ‘A’ level standards as its norms since it was pitched between the ‘O’ & ‘A’ level standards. The pattern of grading candidates’ score in the examinations was such that the distinctions grade was represented by A1 to B3. The credit grade was represented by C4 to C6. The ordinary pass grade was represented by D7 and E8 while the failure grade was represented by F9. It needs to be mentioned however, that the distinction and credit grades are the only requisite qualifications for admissions into universities in Nigeria and candidates must have at least five credits in five subjects including English Language in order to qualify for admission .The foregoing review has shown that class-size is a controversial educational tool that has varied from one country to another. Thus, this study was embarked upon to determine the influence of class-size on the quality of output from secondary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria.
Statement of the Problem
It has been observed that secondary schools in Ekiti State appear to be densely populated while classrooms seem to be over-congested. It has shown the views of previous researchers on class-size in various countries. In view of the divergent opinions, the problem of this study was to determine what influence class-size had on the quality of output from secondary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. This situation seems to be impairing effective teaching and learning process in the secondary schools in the state and hence the reason for embarking on this project.
Purpose of the Study
The broad objective of the research project is to examine the effect of class size and academic achievement of Economics students in secondary schools in Ekiti State.
The specific objectives are;
- To examine the impact of impact of class size on the academic performance of Economics students in secondary schools in Ekiti.
2 To examine how negative effects of class size on academic performance of Economics students in secondary schools in Ekiti could be brought to minimal.
3 To examine how quality class size helps in improving the efficiency and Effectiveness of teaching and learning of Economics in secondary schools in Ekiti.
The research seeks to answer the following questions
- “Is there any difference in the achievement in Economics for senior secondary school students in small and large sized classes?
- Is there any interaction effect between location of school and class size in the achievement in Economics for senior secondary school students in small and large sized classes? ”
- Is there any significant difference between the quality of output of students in schools having an average small class-sizes and the quality of output of students in schools having an average large class-sizes in the SSCE examinations in the State?
- What is the impact of class size on Economics teachers’ productivity in secondary schools in Ekiti State?
The following null hypothetical statements are made with respect to the objectives of the study.
- “There is no significant difference between the achievement of students in Economics in small and large sized classes of senior secondary schools.
- There is no interaction effect of School location and class size in students’ achievement in senior secondary school Economics .
- There is no significant difference between the quality of output of students in schools having an average class-size of 35 students and below and the quality of output of students in schools having an average class-size of above 35 students in SSCE examinations in Ekiti State, Nigeria.
- There is no significant relationship between class size and teachers’ productivity.
Delimitation of the Study
The study is specifically talking about the Correlation between the class size and the teaching and learning efficiency of Economics Students in Ekiti State. The study will concentrate on the effects of class size on the teaching and learning of Economics in (5) Senior Secondary Schools in Ikere Local Government area of Ekiti State.
Significance of the Study
The Nigerian education system is progressively becoming more and more complex. But the catalogue of sources shows that Nigerian secondary school class is over congested and thereby leads to a decline in the teaching and learning of Economics . Experience has shown that class size is a major contributing factor to the assumed teachers’ Ineffectiveness in many secondary schools in the State. For instance, in the recent years, Nigeria has witnessed rapid educational expansion especially at the secondary school level without corresponding increase in the provision of essential facilities and this has resulted into large school size and eventually large class size; with its attendant problems of lack of facilities for teachers and also lack of good classroom management by the teachers. For instance, it has been observed that students may be too difficult to control by teachers in many of the large classes due to over congestion of students in these classes. Experience has also shown that teachers tend to lose the ability to attain or establish effective teaching in the overcrowded class than small class and this problem of large class size in secondary schools has been attributed to several factors, such as the introduction of too many subjects on primary school time-table, which invariably has given birth to accommodation of all the subjects on the school time-table couple with the shortage of qualified teaching personnel to teach these subjects.
Based on this, the research work contains the researcher’s contributions that would be of help and useful to education policy planners, Educationist, Ministry of Education authorities, Stakeholders, school administrations and management in senior schools towards helping students to improve the quality of facilities in the education system.
Apart from the above, the research will provide valuable information on the influence of different interacting factors on the effects of class size on the teaching and learning of Economics among secondary school students. The content of the study will also serve as resource materials for others who want to carry out further research.
Definition of Terms
The definitions used in the historical class size debate vary according to the researcher. The following definitions are ones that will be used in this research.
Class size: Class size is typically defined as the number of students for whom a teacher is primarily responsible during a school year. The teacher may teach in a self-contained classroom or provide instruction in one subject (Lewitt & Baker, 1997, p. 2). Achilles (2003) gives the following example of class size: “Average class-size is the sum of all students regularly in each teacher’s class divided by the actual number of regular teachers in those specific classes. Regardless of the definition one uses, class size has been difficult to measure due to the dynamic nature of classrooms (adults and students move in and out of classrooms), a variety of classroom models (pull outs, resource rooms, aides, specialists), and a lack of precise measurements of what occurs in schools and classrooms (pupil-teacher ratios, pupil-professional ratios, class size based on the number of students assigned to a given teacher) (Reichardt, 2000). The lack of a common agreement as to what constitutes a small class or even an ideal class has made it difficult to compare research studies.
Operational definition of class size: For the purpose of this study class size was defined as the number of students for whom a teacher is primarily responsible during a school year. A small class was defined as a class having 11 of fewer students. A large class contained 20 or more pupils.
Pupil-teacher ratio (also known as teacher-student ratio): Achilles (2003) defined pupil-teacher ratio as the number of student in a school or district compared to the number of teaching professionals. All educators may be part of the computation, including counselors and administrators. According to Hanushek (1999), the only data that are consistently available over time reflect pupil-teacher ratios. Determining class size requires one to decide which classes to count. For instance, are physical education and driver’s education included? “Class size is generally best defined in the traditional elementary school grades, where a single teacher is responsible for a self-contained classroom, and the definition gets progressively more problematical as the instructional program becomes more complex” (Hanushek, p. 140). Although there is a slight discrepancy among the actual numbers, pupil-teacher ratio is significantly lower than average class size. The difference nationally between class size and pupil-teacher ratio is about 10 pupils (Achilles, 2003).
Class size reduction: Class size reduction is the processes to achieve class sizes smaller than the ones currently in place (Achilles, 2003).
WAEC: The West African Examination Council (WAEC) refers to student academic assessments Final year exam at secondary level.
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