EFFECT OF ELECTRONIC EXAMINATION ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS

EFFECT OF ELECTRONIC EXAMINATION ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
Electronic examination has been highly interested and suitable in both educational and pedagogical aspects. Examination is one of the best methods of evaluating the knowledge and ability of an individual. To this end, various methods has been employed in examining the ability of an individual, starting from manual means of using paper and pencil to electronic, from oral to written, practical to theoretical and many others. The present information technology means of examining students is the use of electronic systems in place of manual or paper method which was characterized by massive examination leakages, impersonations, demand for gratification by teachers, bribe-taking by supervisors and invigilators of examinations.
In Nigeria, very few Universities have started using the e-exams system for their test/exams and these includes Federal University of Technology Minna, University of Ilorin, Covenant University Ota, Nigerian Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), to mention but a few. In all the six Universities visited in the course of while others uses intranet setup within the University environments. The intranet was setup in e-exams centers containing 50 to 200 computer systems and a server. Another observation made was that most of these centers are being managed by private company (Electronic Test Company Limited) which is not so good for the integrity of the results. this research, they are all operating almost in the same way. Only NOUN uses internet for the e-exams,
The employers are conducting aptitude test for their job seekers through electronic means; the universities and other tertiary institutions are registering and conducting electronic examination for their students through the internet and other electronic and networking gadgets, various examination bodies in the country like the West Africa Examination Council (WAEC), National Examination Council (NECO), National Board for Technical Education (NABTEB), National Teacher Institute (NTI) e.t.c. register their students through electronic means, recently electronic examination has been widely adopted by nearly all the Nigeria University for post Unified Tertiary and Matriculation Examination (Post-UTME) otherwise called pre-admission screening. With these aforementioned and many more educational bodies engaging
in electronic examination and registration for testing the ability of their candidates, which determine the future of this great country and our dear youth, there is need for serious examination of the system which has great impacts on the populace
Schramm (2008) looked at a e-learning web based system that could simply offer and grade mathematical questions with infinite patience. Therefore it needs the capability for in and output of mathematical formulas, the dynamic generation of plots and the generation of random expressions and numbers. Al-Bayati and Hussein (2008) presents an applied Generic Software of multiple kinds of e-exam package; this package of e-exam is oriented to Hearing Impaired (HI) persons. Therefore the exam material of this package is translated into language of HI persons like sign language and finger spelling. The idea of the Generic software is to present an empty templates to the teacher who would like to develop his required e-exam for the needful topic (mathematics, language, science, etc) and desired set of exam kinds (multiple choices, matching between words, fill in blanks, etc). Web-based Examination System is an effective solution for mass education evaluation (Zhenming et al, 2003). They developed a novel online examination system based on a Browser/Server framework which carries out the examination and auto-grading for objective questions and operating questions, such as programming, operating Microsoft Windows, editing Microsoft Word , Excel and PowerPoint, etc. It has been successfully applied to the distance evaluation of basic operating skills of computer science, such as the course of computer skills in Universities and the nationwide examination for the high school graduates in Zhejiang Province, China. Another paper (He, 2006) presents a web-based educational assessment system by applying Bloom’s taxonomy to evaluate student learning outcomes and teacher instructional practices in real time. The system performance is rather encouraging with experimentation in science and mathematics courses of two local high schools.
Using technology in the educational sittings has become widespread and there has been a growing interest in recent years in developing and using computer-based tests in educational settings particularly in educational assessment instead of traditional paper and pencil tests for several reasons: Firstly, traditional assessment modes in crowded classrooms can be a serious load on the instructors (Mercier et al., 2004; Kim, 2005). Moreover, integrating new technologies to the courses will support instructors’ professional career development.
Electronic exams improve both the student’s achievement. Many studies focused on the effects of using computers in the classroom for testing on various aspects of the learning environment such as student achievement and students motivation. Engdahl (1991) tested 250 adults with cognitive disabilities on language usage and space relations in one of the following three test administration modes: traditional paper and pencil, fixed length computer-adaptive and variable length computer-adaptive. The researcher found that these adults performed better on the computerized versions than on the traditional paper and pencil tests and that clinicians were less accepting of the computerized assessment than their patients. After studying the use of computer-administered testing by the American College extensively over a six-year period from 1982-1988, Bugbee and Bernt (1990) found student achievement on 28 computer-administered tests was, in some cases, better than traditional paper and pencil tests. Thirdly, a recent study has reported that the computer -based testing mode was more reliable in terms of internal and external validity. In addition, the testing mode reduced testing time and increased the motivation of the participants (Chua, 2012). Weiss and Betz (1973) concluded that adaptive testing could considerably reduce testing time and at the same time yield scores of higher reliability and validity than traditional paper and pencil tests. Vansickle, Kimmel, and Kapes (1989) compared computer-based and traditional paper and pencil forms of the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory for equivalence. They administered the inventory to 52 university students using a two week test-retest design. Their results indicated that although the forms were equivalent, the computer-based form might have been more reliable and faster to administer.

Statement of the Problem
Information and communication technology now controls all aspects of human life such as science and technology and in education in the areas of computer managed instruction and computer aided instructions which are the bases of computer in education like computer based examination as it is commonly called. Joint Admission and Matriculation Board adopted the use of computer based examination to assess students who seeks admission in Nigerian universities. The purpose of computer based examination is to stop manipulation of candidate‟s examination scores, monitor student‟s /cognitive understanding, and improve academic programs and ICT proficiency. It is also aimed at eradicating examination malpractices, quick release of examination results and enhance students‟ learning through vast online materials and reduce to barest minimum, the problems faced by the traditional method of examination i.e. Paper –pencil based assessment. Electronic examination are assessment backbone in the modern digital era without which effective assessment and evaluation may not be realized. Further, the system advantages associated with electronic examination is important to explore the assessment mode and opinion of the students being assessed. To comply with this demand, student‟s perception on the advantages and disadvantages of computerized examination is important, since user‟s perceptions and criticism are crucial in the acceptance, implementation and improvement of computerized examination.
Despite the effectiveness of Electronic examination in modern assessment process, it happens to be mismanaged by most university most expecially Maiduguri University. The use of electronic examination which is the backbone of modern examination was degraded to a limited trend. Electronic examination is a programmed assessment with the aid of computer based technologies and students‟ are marked automatically through the response and answers submitted by every individual students and scores been sent to their mobile phone or by checking the website. These deny the aspect of taking into cognizance the perception of students been assessed by the management of the school ICT through online assessment feedback. This causes lapses on electronic examination and inevitable decline on the use of computerized examination method by students‟ which affects their perception towards the use of the latest innovation. In view of the above problems this study therefore, seek to undertake the effect of electronic examination on students academic performance in continuing education University of Maiduguri.
Objectives of the Study
This study is aimed at assessing the effect of Electronic examination on academic performance of students in continuing education in University of Maiduguri
Specially the study will
1. examine the effect of e-exams on students’ motivation
2. determine if students attitude towards use of Electronic Examination have effect on students academic performance in University of Maiduguri
3. Find out the difference between male and female students‟ perception on the use E-examination in Maiduguri University
4. Ascertain the factors that influence students towards the use of electronic emxamination in Maiduguri University
5. Compare the academic performance of students who students who take the exams by using electronic- exams versus the traditional paper and pencil form
Research Question
The following research questions are drawn to guide the study:
1. To what extent does electronic examination have effect on students motivation?
2. Does students atitutde towards the use of electronic examination have effect on their academic performance?
3. Is there any difference between male and female students‟ perception on the use E-examination in Maiduguri University
4. What are the factors influencing students on the use of electronic examination in Maiduguri University?
5. Is there any difference on the academic performance of students who students who take the exams by using electronic- exams versus the traditional paper and pencil form?
Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated for the study:
1. There is no significant difference on the attitude of students towards e-examination in Maiduguri University
2. There is no significance difference difference between male and female students‟ perception on the use E-examination in Maiduguri University
3. There is no signifgicance difference on the academic performance of students who students who take the exams by using electronic- exams versus the traditional paper and pencil form?
Significance of the Study
This research work would be significant to Joint admission and matriculation board, University Maduguri ICT directorate, other Universities, instructional designers, school administrators, curriculum developers, professional associations, students and lecturers on the areas of student‟s perception and view towards information and communication technology in education. The findings from this study would create awareness for the management of the schools to know student‟s attitude on the use of electronic examination and improves on its present status. Also, it would assist Universty of Maduguri to find out what have been the students‟ constraints and factors on the use of Electronic examination and to improve their mode of operations in e- examination. The finding of this would be of benefits to students, lecturers, National Examination Bodies and universities in Nigeria. The study could help provide universities and other educational establishments with useful information or fact on the level of information and communication technology resources, computer literacy and compliance of students by providing to them adequate training of the required manpower to help teach them the much needed manipulative skills to students or candidate. The result of this research study will help both Federal and State Government to lay more emphasis on Computer or ICT in education and budget more funds to our educational sector as recommended by UNESCO and for the full implementation of ICT in education in Nigeria. It will also enable all education stakeholders like the teachers, educational planners, curriculum and instructional designers with other professional associations in the system to design and redesign the mode of examination (education) from traditional conventional method to computerized based method (digitalized) method of assessment or education to be introduce at all levels of our educational system from primary to secondary schools to help teach, equip and prepare students ahead of the new innovative of joint admission and matriculation board computer based examination and other internal and external digitalized examination to fit in the informative age, as the whole world is shifting the assessment paradigm with advance ICT technologies for quality assessment delivery. It will further provide empirical evidence of e-examination.
Scope of the Study
This study was focused on the “Effect of E-examinatin on academic performance of students in continuing education in university of Maiduguri . It was limited to students in Continuing Education in University of Maiduguri. In addition, only the first year undergraduate students of Conintiung Education in the university participated as respondents to the questionnaire that was administered, this is because the study does not cut across faculties and subject areas. The variables considered were gender, age, qualification and nature of entrance examination.

Operational Definition Of Terms
Perception: – is the process of recognizing and interpreting sensory stimuli.
Electronic examination: – electronic means for assessing students‟ academic performance in formative and summative assessment in digitalized environment or classroom
Traditional paper and pencil test: Test taken with a test booklet pencil, and optical mark score sheet.

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