Title page





Table of content


Background of the study

Statement of the problem

Purpose of the study

Research Question

Significance of the study

Scope and limitation of the study

Definition of terms


Causes of truancy

Home factors

School factors

Pupils factors

Consequences of Truancy

Solution to Truancy





Research Design

Population and Sampling population


Validation of instrument

Data collection procedures

Data Analysis








Limitation of the study

Suggestion for further sties










Background of the study

For a long time now, attention have been drawn by the society and the press to the increasing numbers of children who for one reason or the other fail to attend school. It must be noted that this occurs among both male and female pupils

The various governments in All Nigeria have continued to meet over this problem about three years ago. The Ondo state government instituted an inquiry to find out why a large number of pupils left their school, to indulge themselves in various undesirable behaviours.

In spite of the fact that some recommendation have been made on the cause and treatment of truancy, the problems of truancy still remains in many primary schools pupils in Akure South Local Government Area in Ondo state

This study focuses on the truancy among primary school pupils in Akure South Local Government Area in Ondo state. This finding which includes various remedial approaches will be of great value, not to parents, guidance and teachers but to all other counselors as well.

The attention and the feelings of school heads, classroom teachers, parents/guidance, Educational administrator the governments and National Universities commission (NUC) have been drawn towards the irregular school attendance coupled with continuous poor academic performance of secondary school students.

A major problem facing primary schools is that of  irregular school attendance and continuous poor academic performance of primary school pupils in unites states each state and District of Colombia have enacted compulsory school attendance laws that date from the earliest adoption in Massachusetts in 1990 to the latest in who choose not to attend school regularly are in violation of the law and therefore, the focus of many public school systems.

Irregular school attendance is regarded by psychologists and psychiatrists as a sign of disturbance in students. The assumption is that assessment should be given to the students by professionals.

Truancy will be viewed from sociological perspective here it is based on individual response to occurrences in the school or society. There is no really specific definition of truancy. Truancy, according to Oxford Dictionary  is the practice of staying away from school without permission. A child who absents him/herself from school without good reason is a truant. Some writers see truancy as well all absentees irrespective of their reasons.

According to Monreoe Marklund [2002] the typical persistent truant is unhappy at home, unpopular at school and unsuccessful in his class work. He /she is rarely an articulate critic of contemporary society and it’s educational values. He is usually a child failing to cope satisfactory with his difficulties and in need of help “Healy [1995] regards truancy as the kindergarten of crime. Truancy is regarded by psychiatrists are anti-social behaviour recently, there was Easter holiday which stated from Friday, 22nd and end on Monday 25th March, 2008 which students are expected to resume the next day which is on Tuesday, 26th March, 2008, but some of the students refuse to resume at the that day of resumption [a case study in the university of Benin]. This attitude is seen by some of the students as carry over from primary and secondary school, as it is peculiar with the secondary schools at the beginning of every new term or some days of resumption after any public holiday.

Truancy in primary schools is not only peculiar to schools in Ondo State but also all over Nigerian and outside Nigeria. Truancy is currently top of the government’s first of Educational Issues to be addressed [Ken Reid, Swansea Institute of higher Education U.K.]. Truancy is applicable to difficult situation but here if focus on irregular school attendance and continues poor academic performance.

Statement of the problem

In recent years there had been increasing interest in pupils playing truancy which had adverse effects on the academic performance of some primary schools pupils.

The problem of truancy is assumed to became more rampant during  the farming sea son in the local government and this militates against school discipline.

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors causing truancy among pupil in Akure South Local Government Area in Ondo state, the major purpose therefore was:

  1. To ascertain the frequency of truancy in male and female pupils
  2. To investigate the factors responsible for truancy in Akure South Local Government Area in Ondo state
  3. To provide advance solution to the problem of truancy on the study area

Research  question

The following research questionnaires were prepared

  • What is the rate of truancy among the primary school in public school?
  • What is the relationship between the performance of foster and non foster home?
  • Does the attitude of teachers affect the performance of the pupils in relation to their attendance in schools?

Research hypothesis

  • There is no significance differences between truancy and broken home of pupils in Akure South Local Government Area in Ondo state
  • There is no significant difference in the causes of truancy’ expressed by truant and non truant pupils in in Akure South Local Government Area as measured by the Class teacher questionnaire
  • There is no significant difference in the causes of truancy’ expressed by pupils and teachers in in Akure South Local Government Area as measured by the Class teacher questionnaire

Significance of the study

It will open the eyes of school Authorities more than ever before to have the through grasp of the truancy problem.

The results of the study will help the school authorities to educate parents on the causes of truancy among their children and also to assist them to adjust on the welfare of their children.

Truancy is an adjustment, problem and therefore relevant to guidance and counseling which calls for need to have trained counselor in our schools to help in combating the problem of truancy thereby enhancing the development of the pupils and national development as well.

With reference to the prevention and reduction of training when its nature and causes are known, the individual pupils are more likely to overcome the instructional problem and educational objectives will appear to be easily achievable.

In conclusion, truancy which is prevalent in our primary school is our primary school is an in disciplinary problem that can militate against the good intentions of the government on primary school education. It will therefore, be a meaningful exercise to carry out an investigation into the causes of truancy among pupils with specific reference to primary school pupils in Akure South Local Government Area in Ondo state.


Scope and limitation of the study

Akure South Local Government Area in Ondo state is situated on a relatively low and land about 100 metres above sea level. The climate is tropical raining zone the season can be grouped into two zones namely rain and dry season. The annual rainfall is between 100 and 150 centimeters which spread over a period of at least months of the year within the month of April to October.

It has an average temperature of not less than 250c .The vegetation and the sort conditions in this area encourages the growth of both cash and food crops such as cocoa, coffee, maize, palm tree etc

Agriculture is the main occupation of the people of this are over 75% of the working populations engage in farming and other occupations including, trading, driving, palm wine tapping, weaving etc. Also in terms of educational position, there are 35 primary schools, 15 secondary school, one National training institute (N.T.I) (Grade two) and Nigeria certificate of Education (UBE) yet to be approved from Kaduna concerning the religion of this area, Christianity, Muslim and traditional religious are practiced.

Lastly, economic of this area are progressive over 50% of working population is engaged in industry rather than any other work. Also most of their wealth comes out of factories and industries are Garri Industry, Palm oil Industry and sawmill industry.




Definition of Terms

The following terms have been operationally defined for the purpose of the study.

Truancy: This could be described as a person who deliberately stays away from duties at school or on a job because of one reason or other.

Peer Group: This means age grade that comprises person, playmates of roughly the same age Academic achievement, this means the result of a pupils as result of his/her continuous assessment. Also means the pupils career success in life after school, as a result of influence of education on them.

Academic performance: This is the grade mark an individual pupils score in class work of examinations used in comparison with the effect on their [pupils] academic performance

Psychological: it means welfare, waged by trying to influence people ideas and benefits

Maladjusted: This could be termed as  a person that unable to adopt himself properly to his environment

Proliferation: This means grow or reproduce or rapid multiplication of things.



This Project is is available for the below list of Nigerian State capitals.
Abia Umuahia, Adamawa Yola, Akwa Ibom Uyo, Anambra Awka, Bauchi Bauchi, Bayelsa Yenagoa, Benue Makurdi, Borno Maiduguri, Cross River Calabar, Delta Asaba, Ebonyi Abakaliki, Edo Benin. Ekiti Ado Ekiti, Enugu Enugu, Gombe Gombe, Imo Owerri, Jigawa Dutse, Kaduna Kaduna, Kano Kano, Katsina Katsina, Kebbi Birnin Kebbi, Kogi Lokoja, Kwara Ilorin, Lagos Ikeja, Nasarawa Lafia, Niger Minna, Ogun Abeokuta, Ondo Akure, Osun Oshogbo, Oyo Ibadan, Plateau Jos, Rivers Port Harcourt, Sokoto Sokoto, Taraba Jalingo, Yobe Damaturu, Zamfara Gusau, FCT Abuja.



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