ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOL IN IKERE-EKITI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

It has been observed that there exists inequality in the academic performances of students. Many assumptions have been made as to the causes of this inequality. Such researchers have traced these differences to be hereditary while some traced it to prevailing environmental condition. Some researchers even combined the two as a factor affecting students’ academic performance.

It is the belief of the researcher that the environment in which the students find his or herself should be seen as a first hand factor that affects the students’ academic achievement. This is because environment in the whole encompasses individuals, therefore the norms and culture should be seen as a miniature within the environment. Thus, the environment serves as a focal point on which all other factors contributing to students’ academic depends. Ezewu (2007) affirmed this when he said that environment in both physical and social, and that both geographical and social condition affects the child physically, mentally, and emotionally. He stressed further that educators should be interest in their children’s “environment”, as this rather than heredity is the phenomenon they can readily assess and control. This research project aims at taking into consideration all the environments.

Many researches have been conducted in many countries of the World to find out the influence of environmental factors on students’ academic performance

The education profession itself has experienced significant changes and revisions of curriculum and programme requirements in the past decades. The changes brought new educational challenges and opportunities. Although some schools experienced enrolment declines from time to time most schools enrolment have notably increased in all parts of the country and every community.

Educational standards are continuously revised and often raided while competitions for high achieving secondary school students have intensified (Chu & Hossler, 2000; Mcpherson and Shapiro, 2008). The initiatives are intended to meet challenges stemming from increased demand for educational reforms and new programmes. Indeed the key to enhance learning is the creation of an environment that encourages secondary school students to pursue educational activities in and outside classrooms. In the increasingly competition markets for high quality students entering schools, there is a need to identify and evaluate the effect of the factor that affect the decisions to attend a particular performance and satisfaction in schools, such factors include  the family socio-economic background, educational achievements of both parents on students’ academic performance. These factors create a learning environment that affect positive school outcomes and performance (Kuh and Hu, 2001). Furthermore, the level of education and the social status of parents are perceived as factors that foster a socio-cultural background conducive to positive school experience and learning.

Some of the researchers have found that environmental factors had significantly lower students’ performance in rural area than the urban area (Crawford, 2002). This assertion was shared by Urwick (2000) who reported that teachers’ preference for urban residence has been a major reason of the bias in quality of education. This was in support of Adeyinka (2007) argument that more teachers often leave teaching in rural areas as a stepping stone to more respectable and rewarding careers. Confirming this point, Bello & Bello (2010) reported that in Nigeria, many young unmarried teachers often consider teaching in a rural school as starting point of their careers for a few years and after establishing themselves on the job, they often move to urban centers to settle down. In other developing countries some situation was found. Tarring, Faraj (2000) found out in Pakistan that there is the reluctance of teachers particularly female, to accept a rural posting, they also found that there were numerous applications for urban posts while small rural school division had fewer applications. This lead to the shortage of trained teachers in rural areas than urban areas.

In terms of performance, Raven (2001) reported that urban students exhibit a greater increase in academic ability and preparation than rural schools Ridzuan (2001). Also found that “urban students” achievement in Physics, Chemistry and additional Mathematics was superior to that of rural students. He then reported that low achievement was associated with poor performance to learning on the part of many students in rural schools. His findings support those of Pabor (2002) who reported that boys in urban school were high achievers and showed more positive attitudes in continued study of mathematics than boys in rural schools.

Education has often identified as an instrument of development of societies and individuals. Hence as a way of life, it serves as a means of transmission and preservation of the core issue in every culture. Although three types of educations are known to exist, the type under this study is the formal education. Most societies tend to build their national hope and aspiration upon this because of its competence in the instrumentality of production of high level skilled manpower for administrative, scientific and engineering utilization. Since student are in a unique position to provide an assessment of their choice of school.

 

1.3     Statement of the Problem

The problem of this study is to find out the efect of the environment on the academic achievement of secondary school students within the local government area of the study.

Although the state government has taken several measures such as providing facilities and rehabilitation of roads as well as rebuilding of some schools, yet it seems that the performance of students has not justified the huge amount of money which the government has been spending. The problem of this research therefore is to examine the level in which environmental factors decline the students’ academic performance in Ikere-Ekiti Local government area of Ekiti state.

1.3     Purpose of the study

  • To examining the environmental factors and students’ academic performance in some selected secondary schools in Ikere-Ekiti Local Government area of Ekiti State.
  • To compare the schools located in urban and rural area in Ekiti State in terms of location, facilities and things that surround the school.
  • To compare the teachers in both schools. Thereby recommending ways of improving the academic performance of the students.

 

Significance of the study

It has been noted that there seems to be difference in academic performance of students from both urban and rural areas despite the facts that they are exposed to the same teaching experience. Environmental factors should not been seen as the root cause of these differences in students’ academic achievement but the child’s immediate environment for this entails both geographical, economic and social conditions which affects the child physically, mentally and emotionally.  The researcher is interested in the child’s “environment” which can be easily assessed and controlled. The investigation is therefore hoped that it would be of tremendous help to both the school environment and students.

If the investigation shows that students from  urban environment perform better than the students from rural environment, the class teacher will be able to fashion out teaching strategies with up to date instructional materials to help the students from rural environment and also the schools administrators would know how to persuade the government concerning in the provision of basic infrastructural facilities for the rural endowment so as to bridge the gap of difference in achievement of students between rural area and urban environment.

 

Scope of the study

The studies will covered only five selected secondary school in Ikere Local government which are;

  1. Amoye grammar school
  2. Eleyo high school
  • Ikere high school
  1. St Louis grammar school
  2. African comprehensive high school.

Research Questions

  1. Do the environmental factors contribute to the academic performance of students in your school?
  2. Do the environmental factors make the difference in students’ academic performance in rural and urban area?
  • To what extend do environmental factor predict students’ academic performance in Ikere-Ekiti?
  1. Is the current students’ academic performance in Ikere directly related to responsive environment?
  2. Do the environmental factors also affect the job performance of the teachers?

 

1.6     Research Hypothesis

Ho1  There is no significant relationship between the environmental factors and students’ academic performance in Ikere-Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State

Ho2    There is no significant difference between the environmental factors and the performance of the student in rural area compare to urban area

Ho3    There is no significant relationship between the environmental factors and the low rate in student academic performance in Ekiti State.

H04    There is no significant difference between the responsive environment and the current student academic performance in Ekiti state

H05    There is no significant relationship between the environmental factors and the job performance of teachers in Ekiti State

 

1.7     Delimitation of the Study

The study is delimited to only public secondary schools in Ikere-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, that are owned and financed by state government.

Private secondary schools were included for comparative purpose especially in the analysis of results, although most time environmental factor are in favour of students in private schools for it is owned and financed by a sole proprietorship.

 

Limitation of the Study

The research has its focus on Ikere Local Government Area, Ekiti State. The study perhaps aimed at finding out the effects fo school environment on student academic performance in secondary school.

The limitation of the study is necessitated by the resources within the disposal of the researcher. These limited resources includes finance, time and also lack of accurate information from the students.

This Project is is available for the below list of Nigerian State capitals.
Abia Umuahia, Adamawa Yola, Akwa Ibom Uyo, Anambra Awka, Bauchi Bauchi, Bayelsa Yenagoa, Benue Makurdi, Borno Maiduguri, Cross River Calabar, Delta Asaba, Ebonyi Abakaliki, Edo Benin. Ekiti Ado Ekiti, Enugu Enugu, Gombe Gombe, Imo Owerri, Jigawa Dutse, Kaduna Kaduna, Kano Kano, Katsina Katsina, Kebbi Birnin Kebbi, Kogi Lokoja, Kwara Ilorin, Lagos Ikeja, Nasarawa Lafia, Niger Minna, Ogun Abeokuta, Ondo Akure, Osun Oshogbo, Oyo Ibadan, Plateau Jos, Rivers Port Harcourt, Sokoto Sokoto, Taraba Jalingo, Yobe Damaturu, Zamfara Gusau, FCT Abuja.

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