THE EXTENT OF USING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING BUSINESS STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
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This research focused on the availability and utilization of instructional materials in the teaching of business studies in Abia State I have chosen the topic in order to examine, to a great extent, the usefulness and importance of using instructional materials in the teaching of business studies in secondary schools.
Descriptive design was used for the study. Questionnaire was used to collect data. Data colleted was analyzed using frequency counts and percentage.
Result revealed that the provision of instructional materials for the teaching of business studies is very important for effective teaching and learning of the subject. Results also revealed that there are availability of instructional materials in secondary schools and these materials are used by the teachers to enhance effective learning of business studies.
Conclusion was drawn and recommendations were made among which are the relevant and adequate instructional materials should be provided for business studies teachers for enhancing learning.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page Page
Table of contents vii-x
CHAPTER ONE: Background of the Study
Background of the study
Statement of problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Limitation of the study
Definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO: Review of Related Literature
Definition and types of instructional materials
The importance of instructional materials in
Preparation of instructional materials
Instructional materials and their uses
Effect of instructional materials on student
Factors Affecting improvisation of instructional
CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology
Population and sample
Area of the study
Validity of instrument
Reliability of instrument
Administration of instrument
CHAPTER FOUR: Presentation Of Data And Discussion of Finding
Data presentation and analysis
Discussion of findings
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
- Background of the study
Effective teaching of any subject depends on the availability and utilization of suitable instructional materials. This is mostly noticed in the vocational subjects such as business studies. Nwije (1999) emphasized that instructional material are intrinsic part of the teaching and learning process and that achievement of the aims and objective of education depends primarily on the proper utilization of instructional materials.
National Teachers Institutes (2002) defined instructional material as those materials which promote the effectiveness of instruction and help the teacher to communicate more effectively. Also Ifeagwu (2000) stated that instructional materials facilitates teaching of subject matter with increasing effectiveness at all levels of learning. The same vein, Ughamadu (1992) defined instructional materials as the resource that the teacher and students use to influence the effectiveness of teaching and learning process.
However, Fadeije (2005) noted that it is the creative use of such resources that will increase the probability of making the students learn and improve their performance of skills that are to be developed. Bozimo and Ikwumadu (2002) grouped instructional materials into reading materials, Audio-Visual materials and non-reading materials.
According to Esene and Oluweri (2005) business subject have not been popular in the Nigerian secondary schools because of the bias against vocational education. The public perception of business subjects which forms part of vocational education is education for the school drop outs. This is further reinforced by the attitude of Nigerian parents who prefer the conventional grammar schools to business schools whose curricular were directed toward the training of secretarial and clerical personnel. This erroneous impression was corrected by the release of the national policy on education. The policy which recommended the 6-3-34 educational system was instrumental to the inclusion of business subject in the secondary school curriculum at the junior secondary level, prevocational subjects were introduced, and they were, Home economics, Introductory Technology, Practical Agriculture and business studies.
Business studies means to learn about economics and financial subjects. It also teaches you how to manage and run a business.
Ugwochuku (2009) says, is a concept that can be defined in so many ways by several people to suit different situations and purposes. Some defined it from the way it is taught in schools. Business studies refer to those business subjects taught at the secondary school level such as book-keeping, financial accounting, shorthand, commerce, and typewriting.
Nanassely (2001) argues that business studies is that aspect of total education programme that provides knowledge, skills attitudes and understanding needed to perform in the business world, as producer or consumer of goods and service that business offers. It is note worthy that business studies involves teaching in various level of education which include secondary schools and higher education, approximately 38% of student enroll in one or more business courses during their secondary school programme.
Business studies include virtually all the knowledge which hold prospect of gainful exploration in the context of business enterprises such knowledge could purely be administered or even extent to the realm of the humanities, it can then be concluded that business studies in secondary school prepares the student to entrepreneur.
It has been discovered that teachers sees the use of instructional materials in teaching either visual, audio or both as a waste of time, in addition some teacher would first display the instructional materials as a way of introducing the topic. The effect of these methods is that students tend to get confused with the use of the instructional materials if not well introduce into business studies lessons at the right time when it will actually make the lesson more meaningful to the student.
Indeed, students will not be able to recollect the instructional materials when the lesson is actually in progress especially when the instructional materials are many and display in stages already explained through the use of instruction materials.
The other method often adopted by business studies teachers is to explain the topic with the uses of instructional materials at the time of the lesson that the student are not left with the responsibility of liking the lesson which has been delivered to them earlier with what the teacher is now showing to them. The major problem encounter there is that of the time constraint which often prevents the use of instructional materials. If this method is adopted before the end of the normal lesson, the time allocated for the lesson might have run out if not well planned by the teacher to accommodated the use of instructional materials at the end of the lessons.
However, the absence of instructional materials make teaching not only time consuming energy sapping but also a difficult task. Therefore the instructional materials have come to assume not only an enviable position but has increasing been recognized as an integral and essential part of teaching.
Instructional materials therefore refer to the materials or media resources that help to make teaching more meaningful and understandable. There is no gain saying the fact that good teacher will perform better in a situation where he has various materials to make his task easier. In addition, Kolade Oje and Babalola (2002) opined that these teaching aids help to develop communication ability by reducing ambiguity. More so, they observed that about 94% of what is seen is remember when the senses are been involved.
Adeoluwa (2008) opined that the application of instrument materials are supplementary strategies in teaching business studies in Junior Secondary school was more effective because the use of instructional materials increase the interest and enhance motivation levels. It could be seeing that learning is based upon the kind of super ordinate, representational, and combinatorial process that occur during the reception of the information. The learning process involve in consumption in which the existing cognitive structure on a substantive, non-verbatism basis.
Wales (2002) stated that the use of instructional materials would make discovered fact glued firmly to the memory of student, he also added that a well plan and imaginative use of visual aids in lesson should do much to banish apathy, supplement inadequacy of books as well arouse student interest by giving them something practical to see and do and at the same time helping to train them to think things out themselves.
However, it is note worthy that teaching aids are important catalysts for social re-engineering and change in learners. It is obvious that effective learning cannot be well accomplished without the use of instructional materials.
Instructional materials possess some inherent advantages that make them unique in teaching. For one thing, they provide the teacher with interesting and compelling platform for conveying information since they motivate learning to have interest in learning process. Also, by providing opportunities for private study and reference, the learner’s interest and curiosity are increasing stimulated.
Instructional material/media resources that help to make teaching more meaningful and understandable. These include audio-visual, auditory materials and a host of others.
There is no gain saying that a good teacher will perform better in a situation where he/she had various materials to make his task easier.
Kolade etal (2003) optioned that these teaching aids help to develop communication ability by reducing ambiguity, More so, they observed that about 94% of what is seen is remembered when the sense have been involved.
However, the absences of instructional materials do make teaching, not only time consuming; energy sapping, but a difficult task. Therefore, instructional materials have come to assume, not only and enviable position, but have bee increasingly recognized as a integral and essential part of teaching.
Wales (1966) was of the opinion that the use of instructional resources would make discovered facts glued firmly to the memory of students.
Savoury (1958) also added that, a well planned and imaginative use of visual aids in lessons should do much to banish apathy supplement in adequacy of book as well as arouse student interest by giving them something practical to see and do, and at the same time helping to train them to think things out themselves.
In his own contributions, Ogunmilade C.A (2002) has this to say, “the teacher can use instructional materials in various way to make his effort more effective in producing learners student who are agile, well-groomed and adequately informed”. He went further to say that “instructional materials can help to present factors and information”. It can engender interest and raise the enthusiasm of learners.
It can also help in picture and image vividly in minds and memory of learner. He concluded that instructional materials have effectively proved a useful comparison in the pursuit of aspiration, knowledge and growth.
In order to raise the quality of education, it efficiency and productivity, better learning materials are needed. Knezewich (2005) also stressed the importance of having appropriate personnel plan and adequate physical facilities to support educational effort. To this end, this project attempts to find out the adequacy or non-adequacy of instructional materials for the teaching of business education in junior secondary school.
- Statement of the Problem
The absence of innovation in the instructional material mode used in the Junior Secondary School to implement the innovative and broad junior secondary curriculum has created a gap in the educational system at the Junior Secondary School level.
This may have contributed the non-attainment of some of the Junior Secondary education objective slated in the national policy on education. The problem on the effectiveness of instructional material in teaching business study vis-à-vis team teaching instructional mode.
Purpose of the study
The general purpose of the study is to determine the extent of utilizing available instructional materials for effective teaching of business studies in Ikwo Local Government Area. Specifically, the study tends to:
- Identify the availability of instructional materials for business studies teaching
- Determine whether teachers make use of the available instructional materials while teaching.
- Determine whether students are interested in learning with the available instructional material.
- Determine some problems encounter by teachers in utilizing the instructional materials.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be beneficial to:
_ Business studies teachers.
_ Jss Students studying business studies
_ Curriculum planners
(a) Business Studies Teachers: It will be beneficial to business studies teachers because they will understand the importance of using instructional materials in teaching business studies and this will enhance their performance as teachers.
(b) JSS Students Studying Business Studies: Students will benefit as they will be aware of the available instructional materials for business studies teaching and make effort to have theirs.
(c) Principals: Principals of individual schools will benefit from this study as they will make use of the data to request for instructional materials and finally,
(d) Curriculum Planners: Curriculum planners will utilize the result of this study to adjust the content of business studies in the secondary schools.
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.
(1) To what extent are instructional materials available for teaching business studies?
(2) To what extent do teachers make use of the available instructional materials while teaching?
(3) To what extent do students have interest in learning within the available instructional materials?
(4) What are the problems usually encountered by the teachers in utilizing the instructional materials?
1.6 Delimitation of the Study
The study looked at the extent of using instructional materials in teaching business studies in Junior Secondary Schools. This study is delimited to the Junior Secondary School in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. This is due to the fact that many offices exist all over the local government which could not be reached due to logistic problem.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Instructional Materials: these are the various material used to promote teaching and learning. These also make teaching and learning more effective especially when used.
Audio-Visual Aids: these are the materials that appeal to both sense of heaving and seeing. These include sound motion picture, television and s host of others.
Visual-Aids: these aids have one thing in common, that is, no sound is provided with them, and these are materials concerned with the sense of seeing
Auditory-Aids: these are material that appeals to the sense of hearing. These material have one thing in common that is only sound is provided to the learners.
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