THE INFLUENCE OF STUDENTS POPULATION ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
This study was carried out to examine the influence of students population on academic performance of secondary students in Oye Local Government Area of Ekiti State. Research questions were raised and relevant literature were reviewed.
Descriptive research design was used for this study. The population for the study consisted of all public secondary head teachers and teachers in Oye Local Government Area. One hundred and fifty respondents were sampled using stratified and simple random sampling techniques. Questionnaire was used to collect relevant information from the sampled subject. Validity of the instrument was established by giving the drafted questionnaires to some test experts and project supervisor. Test –re-test method was used to established the reliability, the questionnaires were administered on a set of twenty teachers outside the sample twice, the set of scores collected were correlated using Pearson’s Product Moment correlation formular and 0.65 co-efficient was gotten, this is high enough to determine the reliability, the instrument was administered personally and all were collected back. The scores generated were analysed using frequency count and percentages.
It was discovered that large classes occur as a result of the government inability to expand school facilities as a result of poor economy, Another causes of student population is lack of adequate teaching staff strength as well an non-enforcement of policies that specify student population and the merging of two or more classes by teachers.
Based on the findings of the study it was recommended that Government should expand existing secondary schools to ensure quality delivery of their mandate instead of establishing more secondary school which amounts to adding to the problem teachers should be given orientation on managing large classes from time to time; the ministry of Education should take steps to appoint more teachers in the general courses to minimize the use of large classes.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE : INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the study
Delimitation of the Study
Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Concept of Overcrowding
Concept of Student Population
Concept of Academic Performance
Effect of School Size
Student Achievement and Leaning Outcome
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Population of the study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Validity of Instrument
Reliability of instrument
Administration of Instrument
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Background to the Study
As school increases, student population also increase, the performance of students become an issue. According to Eniola (2014), student population has become a phenomenon often mentioned in the educational literature as an influence on student’s feelings, achievement, on administration, quality and school budgets. In his words he noted, that student population is almost an administrative decision over which teachers have little or no control. Most researchers start from the assumption that population of the student would prove a significant determinant of the degree of success of students. In fact, with the exception of a few, many studies have reported that under ideal situation, student population in itself appears to be an important factor.
Student population refers to an educational tool that can be used to describe the average number of students per class in a school (Adeyemi, 2008). This varies from country to country. Kedney (2009) saw it as a tool that can be used to measure the performance of the education system. In relation to size, Stepaniuk (2001) reported that the rational utilization of student space depends upon population. This in turn would depend upon the area of the student. He argued that there are approved norms of population 40 students per class for grades 1 to 8 and 35 students per class for the senior classes; while the standard allocation of class space per student is 1:25 square metres. In this regard, Dean (2004) compared student population in some countries and found that Turkey, Norway and Netherlands had student populations of 20 more; the UK, USA, Japan, Canada and Ireland had student populations of between 15 and 20 while France, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, Italy, Luxembourg and Belgium had sizes of below 15.
In Nigeria, however, Okoro (2010) reported that the student population in secondary schools ranges between 35 or40 students. He argued that few students per class are uneconomical, as they do not make full use of space, teachers and teaching materials. Adeyemi (2008) reported that average student population influences the cost of education while capital cost could be reduced by increasing the average student population in schools while Nwadiani (2000) argued that the higher the student population, the lower the cost of education. He contended however, that most students are overcrowded spreading resources thinly and thereby affecting the quality of education. Ajayi (2000) supported the viewpoints and argued that in order to control rising capital cost of education, the average student population could be increased. These points were also supported by Toth and Montagna (2012) who reported that the increase in enrollment in many institutions which has become major concerns of students could definitely lead to an increase in student population.
The relationship between student population and academic performance has been a perplexing one for educators. Studies have found that the physical environment, class overcrowding, and teaching methods are all variables that affect students’ achievement (Molnar, et al., 2000). Other factors that affect student achievement are school population and student population (Gentry, 2000; and Swift, 2000).
The issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to all and sundry. The problem is so much that it has led to the decline in standard of education. Since the academic success of students depends largely on the school environment, it is imperative to examine the impact variables of student population and school population on the academic performance of students in secondary school. Large student population and over populated schools have direct impact of the quality of teaching and instruction delivery. Overcrowded students have increased the possibilities for mass failure and make students to lose interest in school. This is because large student population do not allow individual student to get attention from teachers which invariably lead to low reading scores, frustration and poor academic performance.
In order to better understand the skill levels of students, it might be necessary to evaluate factors affecting their performance. These factors can include: school structure and organization, teacher quality, curriculum, and teaching philosophies (Driscoll, Halcoussis, & Svorny, 2003). The idea that school population and student population might affect student performance is consistent with the growing literature on the relationship between public sector institutional arrangements and outcomes (Moe, 1984).
Statement of the Problem
Many public schools face the problem of overpopulation in a class which usually leads to poor performance of the students. Large population and over populated schools have been observed to have direct impact on the quality of teaching and instruction delivery. Overcrowded classroom tend to increase the possibilities for mass failure and make students to lose interest in school. This is because large student population do not allow individual students to get attention from teachers which invariably could lead to poor reading habit, frustration and poor academic performance of the students.
The issue of poor academic performance of students in secondary school in Nigeria has been of much concern to all and sundry. The problem is so much that it has led to the decline in standard of education. Since the academic success of students depends largely on the school environment, it is imperative to examine the impact of variable of student population and school population on the academic performance of students in Oye Local Government Area of Ekiti State to achieve this, this research therefore examine the impacts of student population on the academic performance of students in secondary school.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the research study is to examine the influence of student population on the academic performance of students in secondary school, with special reference to Selected secondary schools in Oye Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
The research seeks to answer the following questions
- Is there any correlation between student population and academic performance of students?
- Does over population of student affect the school management?
- Does over population possess any challenges on the teachers?
- What are the problems and challenges faced by teacher and students in large classes?
- How can this problem be solved?
Significance of the Study
The research work contains the researcher’s contributions that could be of help and be useful to education policy planners, Educationist, Ministry of Education authorities, Stakeholders, school administrations and management in secondary schools towards helping students to improve the quality of facilities in the education system.
Apart from the above, the research could provide valuable information on the influence of different interacting factors on the impacts of student population. The content of the study could also serve as resource materials for others who want to carry out further research.
Delimitation of the Study
The study specifically examined the impact of student population on the academic performance of students in public secondary school in selected schools in Oye Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
Definition of Terms
The definitions used in the historical student population debate vary according to the researcher. The following definitions are ones that will be used in this research.
Student population: For the purpose of this study student population was defined as the number of students for whom a teacher is primarily responsible during a school year. A small class was defined as a class having 11 of fewer students. A large class contained 20 or more students.
Student population reduction: Student population reduction is the processes to achieve student populations smaller than the ones currently in place (Achilles, 2003).
Academic performance: Is the outcome of education — the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals.
Instructional Strategies: Are devices or techniques employed by the teacher to enhance effective teach-learning process.
Educational Facilities: Are infrastructure designed to promote effective learning.
Teacher : A person who cares enough about abusive and ungrateful teens to work for crappy pay and long hours while hoping someday students mature enough to realize how lucky they are to have someone who gives a shit about them.
Student: a person formally engaged in learning, especially one enrolled in a school or college; or any person who studies, investigates, or examines thoughtfully.
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