Background of the study
The term poultry are considered synonymous with chickens, but generally, it refers to all domesticated birds kept for egg or meat production.
These include Turkeys, Ducks, Chicken, Geese Pigeon, Ostriches and Guineas fowls.
In the past, poultry’s keeping did not receive the level of attention it is receiving nowadays as most families raised poultry on a basis from which egg and meat are occasionally obtained for food.
The birds are kept on free range where they room about freely to find their own food also in some communities poultry where kept cock, fighting and for knowing when daytime is near through cockcrow.
Gradually, poultry keeping developed into a commercial enterprises involving hundred, or thousands of birds more sufficient species of birds, good quantity and balanced fed as well as appropriate management systems coupled with sophisticated poultry equipments were introduced.
Egg production has proved to be the most profitable of all poultry enterprises at present, the finance institution have recognized this and have consequently allocation the largest percentage of their loan to agricultural sector particularly poultry sub-sector.
Although the commercialization of poultry keeping is a recent development in the humid regions in these regions as contrasted with the temperate region where the industry is less capitalized. The industry in the tropics is usually small and depends more on manual labour. The industry usually have poor and of low level performance variety birds the factor that has been linked to higher cost of production in the tropics more over poultry industry in the tropics is not as diversified as in the temperature.
In the tropics, emphasis is mainly on egg production which are derived from layers, for instance a Rhode Island Red lays about 150-200 per loping cycle some species are also kept for economic and nutritional benefits especially fast growing broilers. Commercial has taken over the poultry business because the demand for egg has increased and the government had to allow occasional importation of some poultry products like hatching machine. The interest in poultry production has risen tremendously in recent times because of its potentiality in bridging the gap between actual protein in taken and the world health organization standard.
This hinges on the promise that poultry birds generally have short generation interval, a very good feed conversion efficiency and are highly prolific in term of egg production.
Owolabi et al (2011) reported the level of animal protein intake of an average Nigerian is estimated at 15% of the total protein intake, compared with an average intake of 55% for European this shows that an average Nigerian adult has very low intake of animal protein, there is need for developing livestock enterprises which involving keeping of goat, cattle poultry, pigs, rabbits and fishes of all these poultry seems to be the most promising enterprises in Nigeria became of its numerous advantages in producing table meat and eggs that are rich in animals proteins within the shortest time.
1.2 Statements of the Problem
Despite the emphasis placed on the ability of poultry industry to provide well balanced animal protein through meat and egg not relatively cheap cost many secondary schools poultry in Ikere Local Government have folded up while the existing ones are providing below expectation probably due to capital needed incidence of diseases, shortage of skill personnel as well as lack of efficient storage facilities for eggs and other poultry products, it is in this light that this study intends to find out the problems of egg production in secondary schools in Ikere Local Government area of Ekiti State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study is to look into the problems of egg production in secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State specifically, the study seeks to
- Determine the types of bread of laying birds kept by different secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State
- Identify the types of management system adopted
- Determine the source of labour employed and quality and quantity of personnel used by each schools in Ikere Local government Area of Ekiti state
- Determine the source of fund available to the secondary schools in Ikere Local Government
- Determine the problems encountered in egg productions
- Suggest ways which egg can be improved in production in various secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area
1.4 Significance of the Study
The dietary importance of livestock products in the human body can not be over-emphasized but the possibility of raising the potentials seems elusive owing to the very low production of three products. The effect of this is, increasing prices of the products which makes it not to be within the reach of the populace. The findings of this study will help the secondary schools to identify the problems confronting the layer production and suggest to the government. The roles to play to help various institutions in raising poultry farm.
1.5 Research Questions
For the purpose of this project, the following research question were raised.
- What number of secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area are engaged in egg production?
- What are the types of breed of birds kept in secondary school in Ikere Local Government?
- What management system is adopted in secondary schools in Ikere Local Government
- What are the numbers of the personnel both skilled and unskilled required in egg production is secondary schools in Ikere Local Government
- What are the major problems beings encountered in egg production?
- What are the sources of find available for keeping poultry?
Assumptions of the Study
Some assumption were made in carrying out this study
- Secondary school in Ikere Local Government keep different types of exotic breed of layer birds
- Secondary schools practice intensive system of poultry keeping
- Secondary schools are aware of the existing problem facing egg production in their schools
- Secondary schools would be able to suggest ways of improve egg production
Definition of Terms
- Poultry can be define as those species of birds that render economics service of man and reproduce under his care the term poultry in common usage refers to domestic fowl such as Geese’s, Ducks, Turkey etc
- Broilers: These are fowls reared for meat
- Layers: These are the domestic birds kept solely for egg production
- Dual –purpose breed: This is types of fowl that is capable for production, both table egg and meat
- Flock: This is a group of fowl
- Chicken: These are the meat of fowl
- Clutch: This is a group of young chicks
- Treading: This is act of mating in fowl
- Hen: They are the female fowl above one year of age
- Chick: They are the young 6-10 weeks old
- Pullet: They are female fowl, one year of age
Abia Umuahia, Adamawa Yola, Akwa Ibom Uyo, Anambra Awka, Bauchi Bauchi, Bayelsa Yenagoa, Benue Makurdi, Borno Maiduguri, Cross River Calabar, Delta Asaba, Ebonyi Abakaliki, Edo Benin. Ekiti Ado Ekiti, Enugu Enugu, Gombe Gombe, Imo Owerri, Jigawa Dutse, Kaduna Kaduna, Kano Kano, Katsina Katsina, Kebbi Birnin Kebbi, Kogi Lokoja, Kwara Ilorin, Lagos Ikeja, Nasarawa Lafia, Niger Minna, Ogun Abeokuta, Ondo Akure, Osun Oshogbo, Oyo Ibadan, Plateau Jos, Rivers Port Harcourt, Sokoto Sokoto, Taraba Jalingo, Yobe Damaturu, Zamfara Gusau, FCT Abuja.
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