THE RELEVANCE AND LIMITATIONS OF MAPS AND DIAGRAMS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF GEOGRAPHY IN SECONDARY EDUCATION IN AKURE SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ONDO STATE

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page……………………………………………………………………i

Certification…………………………………………………………..ii

Approval Page……………………………………………………..iii

Dedication……………………………………………………………iv

Acknowledgement………………………………………………….v

Table of  Content……………………………………………….vi-viii

Abstract……………………………………………………………x

Chapter One :

Introduction

Background to the Study…………………………………………….1

Statement of Problem…………………………………………………4

Purpose of the Study………………………………………………..6

Significance of the Study……………………………………………7

Scope of the study……………………………………………………7

Research Questions…………………………………………………8

Research Hypothesis………………………………………………..8

Definition of terms…………………………………………………..8

Chapter Two:  Literature Review………………………………….10

Chapter Three: Methodology

Research Design……………………………………………………28

Study Area…………………………………………………………29

Population of the study …………………………………………..30

Sample of the study……………………………………………….31

Research Instrument………………………………………………32

Validation of the instrument…………………………………………33

Reliability of the instrument………………………………………33

Administration the instrument…………………………………….33

Data Analysis……………………………………………………….34

CHAPTER FOUR : PRESENTATION AND DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FIVE : Summary Concussion and Recommendation……………………………………………………48

Summary……………………………………………………………48

Conclusion…………………………………………………………..51

Recommendation……………………………………………………52

Suggestion for further research studies…………………………….53

References…………………………………………………………54

Appendix…………………………………………………………59

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


ABSTRACT

This research was carried out purposely to identify the relevance and limitations of maps and diagrams in teaching and learning of geography in Akure South Local Government Secondary Schools.

In order to obtain valid information that would help this study, the research instruments are the students’ questionnaire and the teachers’ questionnaire. The data collected were analysed using Chi-square. The results were then interpreted and discussed. It was discovered that the attitude and the interest of students towards map work was not encouraging which was caused mainly by insufficient teaching resources i.e both human and material resources. Some of their teachers do not teach them using maps due to their incompetence. Based on these findings, it was then recommended that competent teachers vast in map work and diagram interpretations should be employed to make learning easy for students. Also, school library should be well equipped with current geography textbooks that contain maps and diagrams as learning aids. Finally, ministry of education should make sure that they always employ qualified teachers that will give effective teaching and enable the students to have effective learning.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the Study

The recent happening in the country and other parts of the world have shown how little we understand ourselves. It has also shown how little we understand interdependence which forms the basis of our existence as effective human beings constantly struggling to change the face of the planet on which we live. In the past, the world was spatially a narrow one. It remains so for many especially in traditional societies. In the words of Wooldridge and East (1967) “It was necessary to cultivate a certain practical awareness of environment. In order to live and survive on any part of our planet earth”. It is useful however, to recall that man as an observing, caring and reflecting animal has always been a geographer.

Many scholars have criticized the subject of geography. The search for the best way or method of teaching geography, to enhance good performance of students and the best convenient way for teachers to teach without sweating to this end the Association of Nigeria Geographers has commissioned a committee of school geography to re-examine the content and the method of teaching geography. (Majasan 1971).

In the opinion of Faniran (1980) the problems facing geographers are related to lack of teachers, that is, experienced teachers especially those that are trained to teach, instructional materials such as textbooks, lack of practicals and fieldwork as teaching aids. He went further to describe maps, models and diagrams as providing stimulus for students to find out things themselves and assimilate according to their own interpretation.

Students often see geography as a tough subject which requires an extra effort in order to make success out of it because of its maps and diagrams. This however, serves as a means of discouragement or at times even prevent student from offering geography at a senior class level. This believe however according to Udo (1970) is a misconception which if left uncorrected can impede the development of the discipline.

Materials such as maps and diagrams can be identified as helping to link abstract symbols to real objects. They appeal to the sense of touch, sight thereby getting students participation and engagement in lessons, it makes materials and objects in class real in life situation. From the above it can be said that it is through diagrams that the conceptualized models can be visualized. Diagrams also make possible the modeling of equipment by using locally available materials for instance, raingauge can be built with the aid of bottles, measuring cylinder and funnels.

Majasan (1967) stressed that the use of teaching aids like maps and diagrams not only help to create correct impression through the eyes and ears of the learner but also help students to find out things themselves assimilate according to their own interpretation. In essence, evaluation of available learning resources both human and material for the teaching geography is pertinent. This will go a long way in determining what could be done to rectify the situation.

Inspite of all the changes that have visited geography over the years. Its historical relationship with maps and diagrams remain. The relationship between geography maps and diagrams was so tenacious that laymen think that all what geography entail is the drawing of maps and location of places on it. Diagrams have advantages of labeling which aid visual and verbal recall. Models and maps also create correct impression through the “eyes” and “ears” of pupils.

From the discussion so far maps and diagrams and other graphic aids the explanation of geographic facts instead of more verbal description, thus enhance students performance. This research intends to find out the relevance and limitations of maps and diagrams in teaching and learning of geography.

1.1 Statement of the Problem

Researchers have carried out researches on different aspect of geography.

Babalola (1992) carried out a research work on the influence of instructional materials on students performance in geography. The research was carried out in Irewole Local Government Area of Osun State. The result Showed that schools that were rated high in terms of possessionof instructional materials performed best.

Onyekpe (1985) carried out a research survey on the resources of geography in Delta state secondary school Ika Local Government Area. The research instrument used was Questionnaire which was administered to both teachers and students. The result revealed that both human and material resources were inadequate in the schools which had made it difficult for teachers to cover the West Africa School Certificate Syllabus.

Harvna (1999) carried out a research survey on the effects of maps and diagrams in geography on the performance of Bishop Smith Memorial College students in Ilorin Kwara State. The result revealed that those students that were exposed to the use of maps and diagrams. Although various researchers have carried out research on different aspects of geography none however has carried out a research on the relevance and limitation of maps and diagrams in the teaching and learning of geography in secondary Education in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State. Thus the problem of this study is to carry out a research on the relevance and limitations of maps and diagrams in teaching and learning of geography in secondary Education in Akure South Local Government.

 

1.2     Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to investigate the relevance and limitation of maps and diagrams in teaching and learning of geography. It was discovered that teaching with the aid of maps and diagrams improved students retention of the topic learnt.

Furthermore, to determine the level of performance and how well student assimilated with maps and diagrams in geography learning. The research aims at offering useful recommendations considering its importance of the students in the area of learning and suggests some possible solutions to the problems encountered by both teachers and students in teaching and learning with the aid of maps and diagrams.

 

 

 

1.3     Significance of the Study

The research work will be of benefit to the Ministry of Education, Inspectorate Division of School administrators. As it will reveals the prospects of teaching and learning of Geography with the aid of maps and diagrams in Akure South local Government Area.

This research work would also be useful to the government and teachers as it will enable them to understand their roles in the teaching of geography using maps and diagrams.

1.4 Scope of the Study

This study would be limited to five secondary schools in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State. The investigation would cover only SS2students of Geography in the five selected schools. The schools are;

  1. Fiwasaye Girls Grammar School, Akure
  2. Oyemekun Grammar School, Akure
  3. Estate High School , Akure
  4. Winners college School, Akure
  5. FUTA secondary School, Akure

1.5 Research Questions

  • Do maps and diagrams have usefulness in geography teaching?
  • What are the perceptions of teachers on students’ attitude towards mapwork?

1.6 Research Hypothesis

  • Is there any significant difference in the learning outcome of students who are exposed to maps and diagrams and those not exposed to maps and diagrams?

Definition of Terms

In the study of this nature, there are technical terms that are technical terms that are to be encountered; therefore it is often necessary to clarify some of these terms.

Education: Don Berg (2009) education is a process of cognitive cartography, mapping your experiences and finding a variety of reliable routes to optional states when you find yourself in non optional stage.

Geography: Graves (1982), sees geography as a subject that is concerned with the environment within which human beings live as it is named the description of the earth.

Teaching: Sokoya (1996) defined teaching as a system of activities intended to induce learning, comprising the deliberate and methodical creation and control of these conditions in which learning does occur.

Maps: Is visual representation of an area that aids the explanation of geographical facts, thus enhance students’ performance Phillip (1960)

Diagrams: Hall’s (1996) words “diagrams are simplified figures drawn in a way intended to convey essential meaning.

 

This Project is is available for the below list of Nigerian State capitals.
Abia Umuahia, Adamawa Yola, Akwa Ibom Uyo, Anambra Awka, Bauchi Bauchi, Bayelsa Yenagoa, Benue Makurdi, Borno Maiduguri, Cross River Calabar, Delta Asaba, Ebonyi Abakaliki, Edo Benin. Ekiti Ado Ekiti, Enugu Enugu, Gombe Gombe, Imo Owerri, Jigawa Dutse, Kaduna Kaduna, Kano Kano, Katsina Katsina, Kebbi Birnin Kebbi, Kogi Lokoja, Kwara Ilorin, Lagos Ikeja, Nasarawa Lafia, Niger Minna, Ogun Abeokuta, Ondo Akure, Osun Oshogbo, Oyo Ibadan, Plateau Jos, Rivers Port Harcourt, Sokoto Sokoto, Taraba Jalingo, Yobe Damaturu, Zamfara Gusau, FCT Abuja.

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